This page is for the convenience of students in Prof. Tim Richardson's e-commerce classes.
It contains a collection of info and links regarding all the marketing issues relevant to domain names.

This page last updated 2011 May 30
.
http://www.witiger.com/ecommerce/bookCurrentIsssues2ndEd.htm this unit is in the text
"Current Issues in Marketing in the Information Age, 2nd. Edition"
on page
233 - 246
..
Domain Names
marketing issues witiger.com/ecommerce/domainnamesmktg.htm
registration isses witiger.com/ecommerce/domainnamesregister.htm
scams and problems witiger.com/ecommerce/domainnamesscams.htm
scams, phishing witiger.com/ecommerce/domainnamephishing.htm
domain name hacking witiger.com/ecommerce/hackingexample.htm
domain disputes witiger.com/ecommerce/domainnamedisputes.htm
Verisgn problems  witiger.com/ecommerce/domainnamephishing-verisign.htm
..
This web page has audio clips - just click on the icon (like the one to the left) and you can hear Prof. Richardson's voice adding additional information to topics on the page. turn on your speakers to hear audio clips
...
...

.
. This page used in the following courses taught by Prof. Richardson
.
MGT C50
MGT D06
CCT 322
IEC 702
IEC 818
CNET 204
MGD 415
FCA 240
MGS 523
MRK 619
MRK 410
BCS 555
TCS 301

  o considerations to buying a Domain - name search
  o what is a Domain Registrar
  o why buy a Domain - advantages
  o ICANN, CIRA, Internic.ca
 

...
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yIE3VBwvumY Intro to Domain Names http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEPUY4BW5Bc Domain Name
Registration and 
Hosting Issues
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlRjmfoRepg How to register a Domain
Name

TLDs
.com, .biz, .mobi

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g4S9yXbnOkY Choosing
a Domain Name 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hd8YSZJzqr8 Domain
Names

Security and 
Hacking Issues


 
Domain Name selection and registration basics .
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CIBypOCAQHQ Antonio M., student in BCS 555 in November 2009, made a good 3 minute intro about some of the important considerations in selecting and registering a Domain Name. This clip is arranged in an informative way and would be useful to view before proceeding further in this unit.
.

 

http://www.cbc.ca/
During the 4th week of December 2007, Richardson's comments to CP about Domain Names were carried at length in an article on the CBC and CTV websites. Richardson was quoted as saying
 http://www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/SciTech/20071226/domains_names_071226/ (OK May 2011)
was www.cbc.ca/cp/technology/071226/z122604A.htm
.vqs
click "The .ca tag, said Richardson, has become the next logical step for net-savvy users already connected and interconnected on such social sites as Facebook and MySpace. "It's the whole empowerment thing of the Internet,'' he said. "As people realize that the ability to put content on their little Geocities web page and MySpace and Facebook is limited by the built-in software that those circumstances allow, they say, `I don't want to be limited by only putting up five pictures in a square.' "And they realize that they can just buy their own domain and put up their own domain however they feel like it.'' 
w
As a result of being quoted in the Dec 26th 2007 CP story on Domain Names,   Richardson's quotes ran in a number of newspapers (online and printed) throughout North America, including national sites like Yahoo.ca,
 http://news.yahoo.ca/s/capress/071226/technology/technology_cyberfile_personal_domain_1
the Washington Post, and local papers such as the Edmonton Sun, Belleville Intelligencer, Lethbridge Herald, the Thunder Bay Chronicle, Halifax Daily News
.v
Domain
Registration
- Selecting a Name
"When deciding on a name for your business, think in the long term"
Chpt 6, page 107 Creating Stores on the Web by Sawyer, Greely, Cataudella
    o make your name easy to remember and short
    o choose words appropriate to the circumstances
    o don't use cute abbreviations for serious situations
    o use your imagination
    o try to incorporate nouns and short phrases that match 
         your existing promotional material
.
How to Choose a Good Domain Name?

Amelia N.

Omri A.

Raquel O.
from MRK 410 in March 2004 found a good site stir.ca about picking domain names

Everything You Wanted to Know About Domain Names
from  www.stir.ca/webtips/website_domain_names.html

m3.
How to Choose a Good Domain Name:

To help your website and business flourish, pick a domain name that:

1. Is easy for Web users to remember and find
2. Suggests the nature of your  product or service
3. Serves as a strong trademark so competitors won't be able  to use a business name or domain name similar to it.
4. Is free of legal conflicts with trademarks belonging to other businesses.

What makes a good domain name?
from  www.stir.ca/webtips/website_domain_names.html

Good extension - If a person is surfing around looking for a site, and they know its name, most people will try .com. So, for the web site owner who wants their site to be found, the rule is: if at all possible, get a .com name.

Short - "Less than 7 characters, ideally. A simple name will roll off the tongue more easily in conversation, look more professional, and have less chance of being mis-typed. "

Easy to spell - "Make sure it passes the phone test: if you were to say the domain name of your website to a friend over the phone, would your friend be able to spell it correctly the first time without your having to spell it for them? If not, you’ve failed the phone test and should likely try a different domain name. Also, be careful about double letters. Take CyberRodeo, for example. Their domain uses a double R, as you might expect, but there is an uncertainty there. The two R’s together look a bit strange if written without capitalization, and a good name will not force the user to assume anything about the name. If you must have a double letter, the best solution is to buy both versions of the domain. Avoid using dashes in your domain name. "

Descriptive - "A good site or business name will describe exactly what the site is about. In most cases it's important for a person to be able to get some sort of sense what the website is about just by reading the domain name. Of course that logic doesn’t work for sites like ebay, amazon, ivillage, etc, but then again you likely don’t have a multi-million dollar budget to help you brand your name and teach people what it means."

Keywords – "Include descriptive keywords that describe your business, product or mission in your domain name. This will play a very small part, in some cases, in increasing your search engine ranking for search phrases that include the keywords used in your domain name. "
.
Do's and Don'ts when registering a domain name for your business
 
Wenbin L. in BCS 555 in Sept 2004, found a great site www.associate-design.com about Do's and Don'ts when registering a domain name for your business. The site that Wenbin found is run by Richard Fincher.
rtv

Richard Fincher  www.richardfincher.comis the original author of this list as posted on www.room101.co.uk/
j .
How to Choose 
a Good Domain Name 
for your business?

 

Do's and Don'ts when registering a domain name for your business
from Robert Fincher

1. "Make sure that your provider is a reputable company that has been trading for some years". There have been may takeovers and bankruptcies in this business and you do not want to lose your domain because the registrar no longer exists.

2.  "Think carefully before going with a company offering a "loss leader" service." If the price is too low, they may not be a legitimate company.

3. "Ensure that once you have registered your domain name, you are allowed to transfer it to another provider, and that there are no expensive "release fees" to do this. "

Fincher explains "Later, when you have your site built, you may very well need to change provider. Some providers offer a tiny registration cost but a large release fee, so that they " catch you out" down the line."

4. "When you register your domain name, always put the correct legal name for your trading operation." Sometimes it is wise to do a corporate name search to make sure the name you select is not used slightly differently by another existing business

5. When you register your domain name, you will be asked to put down an email address. 

Fincher advises "Don't put down an email address based on the domain name you're registering, for instance, if you're registering amce.co.uk, don't put the contact email down as "me@acme.co.uk". Also, try not to put down an email address which is part of a free, quota-limited webmail service such as hotmail. This is because occasionally, very important emails (such as renewal reminders) will come to this address, and if your quota is full on the day such an email arrives, you may miss it and lose your domain name as a result."

6. "If you've registered a domain name in the past, try to make sure that the provider you chose has your latest email address.... which is to ensure that you don't miss a renewal reminder email."

permission to link, and quote, was given by R. Fincher in an email 2004 Sept29

.

click to hear
.Keeping your Hosting Service separate and distinct from your Domain Registrar.

Usually, in the class that accompanies this unit, Prof. Richardson will explain the advantages of keeping your Hosting Service separate and distinct from your Domain Name Registrar.

see also ISP Hosting Service witiger.com/ecommerce/ISPs.htm
see also Domain Name Registration witiger.com/ecommerce/domainnamesregister.htm

After explaining in class one time about the advantages of keeping your hosting service separate from your domain registration service, I received an email from a student who came up with a good way to explain this. Annie F. in BCS 555 in Oct 2004 emailed to say..
"I just thought of a really good analogy for the difference between a hosting service and a domain name registrar.  Say, you want to make a website.  This website would be regarded as a movie star in our analogy. Then a domain name registrar would be the star's agency because without registering, you basically are nothing.  Then, a hosting service would resemble a movie producer, as this is where all the work goes....I wish I wrote this one the test!"

Kindly regards, Annie F. 

Witiger responds
"yes, thanks Annie, that is a good analogy, and sometimes the Agency and the Producer have different objectives which might not be good for the Star so this is why you want to make sure they are not the same person"

Keeping your Hosting Service separate and distinct from your Domain Registrar .
Jeff G., student in BCS 555 in October 2005 is a member of a young band (Salemsouth). They were considering getting a domain name to have their own website. Jeff emailed Prof. Richardson Oct 3rd to say " i just wanted to let you know that me and the band (salemsouth) have decided to choose our domain name separate from our hosting service mainly because of what i learned in that class. Now i know that if i have a problem with the hosting provider i can switch to another one without the worry of loosing my domain name. I found that there could be many reason to do this to, slow service, they jack up the prices, or if the band ever changed locations.
Witiger responds
- yes, good example Jeff, if your band starts to load a lot of MP3s on the site, and you begin to get a lot of hits, you might want to switch hosting plans in order to get a better rate - if your hosting was also with the domain registrar, they might give you a hard time about cutting off your hosting cause then they'd be losing money if you got hosting someplace else. They might delay switching the IP address, or might incorrectly re-name the DNS servers - any number of things to cause you to think it might be better to just stayy with their hosting.
bb
Keeping your Hosting Service separate and distinct from your Domain Registrar Another point of view

pic submitted by Timur
Timur (Tim) .K., student in MGD 415 in Feb 2010 at U of T Mississauga Campus emailed some thoughtful points about why he disagreed with the strategy of having your domain registrar seperate from the hosting service.
Timur explains
I would like to  summarize my arguments for using the same provider for both hosting 
and domain registration.
1) Convenient, all in one place. Choose a provider that you like and 
stick with him! Makes finances, logistics and life easier.
2) Provided you keep a back-up of your site (which all webmasters do 
by default), the hosting provider has no leverage to 'black-mail' you   at all.
3) The process of registration essentially happens between you and the  registration body directly. I have done this numerously with various  servers and it's always the same process. The provider simply fills  out the paper-work, transaction fee and takes a little cut.
4) The tendencies for comapanies today is to cater to every need, and  reward such consumer choices. By buying everything from one site, you  are ultimately going to run into savings.
5) Hosting ranges anywhere from 5/6-9/10 dollars a month. This means  that the MAXIMUM fluctuation is around 4/month and 48/year. This is  nothing considering how much an effective provider can contribute to  your business. The possible costs of using a cheap/unreliable provider  are likely to exceed 48/year very easily for almost any business.
Witiger responds
- yes, those are valid points - when i gave the advice about the alternate strategy, it was in the context of not knowing how much traffic you might have on a site, and worrying that you might want to switch to another provider for better rates - kinda like not getting locked into a 3yr plan for your cell phone.

 
 
KEY
POINTS
click to hear
We do we spend so much time and space discussing the registration of domain names?

Its a bit like buying an expensive Italian motorcycle and focusing only on financing the cost of buying the bike, without any consideration for licensing and insurance costs which are necessary in order to be "legal" to ride it.
 
clcik to see the bigger ducati aka pasta rocket Your web site is first of all a location in cyberspace, www.something.com. If the "something" is not secure, then your web site does not exist.

WTGR MSS

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Reasons for having your own Domain
"You will want to own your own domain for several reasons, the biggest of which is that it will give you a more professional-looking store and a Web brand name to promote. You will be taken more seriously and customers will find you more easily"
Chpt 6, page 125 Creating Stores on the Web
.
KEY
POINTS
click to hear
By owning your own domain, you will also have some degree of independence, and can minimize your risk.

You can have independence from a particular hosting service. If the service has problems, or increases the fees and you wish to change then your domain has to change from
www.hosting company.com/~mybusiness
to
www.otherhosting company/~mybusiness

If you own the domain, then you can change hosting services and
www.mybusiness.com hosted by hosting company
to 
www.mybusiness.com hosted by other hosting company
is invisible to the viewer/customer

Minimizing risk relates to the competitive economic environment in which hosting companies exist. If, for some reason, your hosting company goes bankrupt, or is bought out, then you hosting may change from
www.axxent.com/~mybusiness
to
www.pathway.com/~mybusiness
Technically, this would change all the links on your site and would therefore effect navigation. You would also need to re-register with various search engines and directories otherwise customers would be forwarded to the old URL
WTGR

th
Domain
Registration
- Selecting a Name
Some people launching an internet commerce venture are also concurrently launching a business. In this case, the process you go through to develop a domain will involve consideration of the legal name of the company and the "legal entity" under which you will carry out your business.
 
KEY
POINTS
click to hear
As discussed in BCS 421 www.witiger.com/senecacollege/BCS421.htm
Before you incorporate a company, you have to do a Name Search to see if the name you wish to use is available

So before you check the various online sources to determine if the domain is available, you need to first begin with the company name and see if that is available. In Ontario, before registering a provincially incorporated company, you need to do a corporate name search.

Conducting such a search will also help you determine if there are any other legal entities (companies, partnerships, sole proprietorships) which have a similar name, which might subsequently set up a web site which might be similar in identification with your's.

.
This is a screen capture from one of the companies that provides NUANS name search services for companies that need a search done - in order to incorporate 
click to hear
click on this screen capture to read more about NUANS
http://www.legallink.ca/ changed to http://www.cyberbahngroup.com/
from http://www.legallink.ca/ - in 2009 changed to http://www.cyberbahngroup.com/

"NUANS Name Searches are printouts that are required by Government offices in order to incorporate a company. NUANS is an acronym taken from the words "Newly Upgraded Automated Name Search". It was a system developed in order for Industry Canada to search and maintain its ever-increasing corporate name file.

A NUANS report is a five-page document that includes a list of corporations, business names, and trademarks that appear and sound similar to the name you are proposing. This list is taken from a national data bank of existing corporations, business names, and trademarks  in Canada. This report must be ordered and submitted to the pertinent jurisdiction, along with your incoorporation Articles when you go to incorporate your company. The report has a life of 90 days from the date the NUANS report was requested."

The process is to pay $75 to the company to confirm the name you want is available. Then you take the PDF printout of the search results when you go to the Ministry to register your corporate name.
 
Registering 
a name
- the name search 
process

 

.
Vlado M. (younger brother of Igor M. CCT322 2006) was in MGD415 in March 2008.

Vlado emailed some helpful information about the process of ascertaining if a name is "free", before you legally register it to incorporate.

While you can pay companies like NUANS a fee, Vlado found one site that enables you too look up existing TradeMarked names free.

Vlade said in his email
"the Canadian Intellectual Property Office(CIPO)  http://cipo.gc.ca/offers a free trademark search. All you have to do is type in the name you are interested in using, and it will provide you with a list of any current trademarks. Furthermore, any attempts to trademark that name will also come up in the search results.

It is a really great service and once again it is completely free. The CIPO also publishes weekly Trademark Journals which compile all trade mark applications for the week, and allow the public to review them, as well as file disputes."

"The CIPO website offers a lot of great services and should be looked at if you ever plan on filing for a trademark, copyright, or patent."

.
Registering 
a name
- the name search 
process
. click the audio icon to hear an explanation of more detail describing the difference between how the NUANS and the CIPO cover the list of company names
.
 
Selecting a Name
- Int'l considerations
.

Naseem Javed , writing in E-Commerce Times May 28th, 2004 discussed some considerations for selecting a domain name that fit international considerations. www.ecommercetimes.com/story/34074.html

Javed has a list of 6 considerations, a couple of his suggestions are relevant for us to follow

.

 

 

#4 global "domainization" and how do you expand your reach?

Javed suggests you consider "How many domain names do you have, and why? The art of cyber-branding now demands sharp skills in the areas of domain registration and Web site management. Multiple domain names create multiple problems in multiple markets. There are rules to be followed. Great opportunities are missed by not having a sophisticated naming system for global cyber branding."

Javed recommends "... to solve this problem, have a proper system in place to manage global complexity. Be aware that there are too many fancy services offering strange global registrations and localization, and most are flaky, faceless and without references."

# 5 linguistics, and why do they embarrass your international customers?

Javed exlains "A site name in one country can mean something entirely different when it circumnavigates the globe. How do you tackle such language issues? The answer is to acquire skills and a deeper understanding of global communications. Even if you're a regional player, your sites are still visible and exposed to the entire world. Cyber branding is an extremely global phenomenon."

.
KEY
POINTS
When Prof. Richardson was developing www.larkhill.com back in 1999 it was considered that one of the possible markets was Japan - so, the translation of larkhill into Japanese was done in order to understand any possible negative or positive consequences.

"Higari ga oka" is what Larkhill means in Japanese and interestingly it is the name for a high class residential neighbourhood in Tokyo, which would fit the branding plans of Larkhill.

sd.
Domain 
Names

the
"new"
names
click to hear
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Domain 
Names

the
"new"
names

UPDATE FEB 2002.
Web adds seven new TLDs
By Albert Leonardo  Feb 2002

"The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) approved seven new top-level domains (TLD) just over a year ago, [fall 2001] and they will soon appear on a  computer screen near you. And with their arrival, laws governing the Internet may soon be getting a serious workout. 
The seven TLDs are 

  • .biz, 
  • .info, 
  • .name, 
  • .pro, 
  • .aero, 
  • .coop and 
  • .museum. 
Leonardo explains "... despite the variety it is the .name phenomena that has several intriguing possibilities. It is being touted as an individual’s digital identity, as users can create a personal Web site and e-mail address. Pre-registration ended on Dec. 17 [2001] and was to take effect on Jan. 15 [2002]. The approach of assigning the names was done much as with an e-mail account, in that it was on a first-come, first-serve basis. The system works on a two-dot system, Frank Smith’s domain name would become frank.smith.name, and his e-mail address would become frank@smith.name. Individuals have to register with an accredited ICANN registrar, the official registry."

..
Domain 
Names

the
"new"
names

The following information was supplied by student Jennifer W. from MRK 610 Feb 2003
.
"The generic top level domains (gTLDs). Domain name registrations in gTLDs are generally available to anyone, regardless of country of origin or geographic location. The gTLD serves to broadly categorize the name as to its type or purpose. However, it is not unusual to find websites that do not reflect the intent of their gTLD. The gTLDs currently being used on the Internet include" from CIRA
....
Domain 
Names

the
"new"
names

.com  Intended for use by commercial domains. 
.org  Intended for noncommercial organizations. 
.biz  Intended for businesses.
.info  Intended for organizations providing information.
.name  Limited to names of individuals.eg. Tim@Richardson.name
.net  Primarily used by network-related companies and organizations. 
.edu  Limited to educational institutions that are "four-year" colleges and universities. 
.mil  Limited to the US military. 
.gov  Limited to the US government. 
.int  Limited to bodies created by international treaty.
.museum  created exclusively for the museum community.
.coop  to allow cooperatives to differentiate themselves from other types of businesses and organizations online
..
.
Domain 
Names

the
"new"
names

.MOBI

UPDATE FEB 2006.
Ecommercetimes.com reported the launching of .mobi

"New .mobi Domain Approved but Challenges Remain"
title of a story written by John P. Mello Jr. in July 2005

"The new domain will be administered by a company called mTLD Top Level Domain Ltd, of Dublin, Ireland, which reportedly will have 20 to 25 people and an annual budget of US$10 million to run the operation."

.
KEY
POINTS

.MOBI

Some people are saying that .mobi is just a gimmick and that the real focus should be on making your web pages WAP enabled so that cell phone browsers can see your content whether or not you have a domain ending  in .mobi

Other people say the web is a very "shallow" place and trends come and go very fast - if people think that having a .mobi site will help them get their content viewed by cell phone users, then a lot of people will start building such sites - we have to wait a few more months and see

WTGR Feb 2nd 2006 On this 

.
Domain 
Names

the
"new"
names

.MOBI

UPDATE March 2006.
.MOBI Sarah D. in MGD415 at UTM - University of Toronto, Mississauga Campus, found some additional information about the mobi domain.
Sarah emailed Prof. Richardson March 19th 2006 and said

I recall you discussing the “.mobi domain” in your lecture on “Domain Names” and found a relevant article. 
Title: New .mobi Domain Approved but Challenges Remain
Author: John P. Mello Jr. Date: 07/12/05
Link: http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/44548.html

According to this article, the .mobi domain will be administered by a company  called “mLTD Top Level Domain Ltd.”, which is situated in Dublin, Ireland. This  company will have 20-25 people and US$10 million annual budget to run the  operation. 

It is stated that the domain name will not have a huge impact because people already use their cell phones to purchase ringtones and games. Thus, it all boils down to the needs and applications of mobile users. 
Sarah D
 

KEY
POINTS
The interesting point about Sarah's email is the suggestion that .mobi might not catch on, therefore hinting that it might not be a good idea to spend a lot of time and money developing domains with this domain ending - at least as far as we know in March 2006. On this 
.
.
Domain 
Names

the
"new"
names

.MOBI

UPDATE Feb 2009.
.MOBI Evgueni S. in MGD415 in 2009 at UTM - University of Toronto, Mississauga Campus, found some info about .MOBI
Evgueni emailed Prof. Richardson Feb 13th 2009 and said

I read about the  ".mobi domain" on your website and found some latest  news about it.

In the news section of  the dot Mobi website, I found an article,  entitled "dotMobi Announces the Availability of One and Two Character  Mobile Domain Names."

According to the article, short .mobi domain names, such as z.mobi,  hq.mobi, g7.mobi, or 99.mobi, are most desirable because companies  want "to extend their brand with a brief, memorable web address."  Mobile phone users will find it a lot easier to type very short URL  addresses as opposed to the typically long ones into their phone  browsers .

Also, I found it quite interesting that "Numeric domains in particular  are sought after because there is no translation needed among  countries, making them extremely useful for global brand recognition." .

.
Domain 
Names

the
"new"
names

.ME

UPDATE Feb 2009.
 .ME Evgueni S. in MGD415 in 2009 at UTM - University of Toronto, Mississauga Campus, found some info about the new .ME TLD
Evgueni emailed Prof. Richardson Feb 17th 2009 and said

I came across a success story regarding the ".me" domain.
After ten months, the ".me" domain has recently crossed the 200,000  registrations mark, which makes it the "...fastest growing new ccTLD  launch on record!"

From the "About .ME" section, I found out that Montenegro was  assigned the country code "me" after it emerged  as an  independent  nation in 2006. As a result of clever marketing and the mass appeal of the domain  name, it has become popular around the world in over 181 countries.  For example, the slogan ".me is about you!" is prominently presented  on the ".me" website. .

.
Domain 
Names

gTLD
ccTLD

UPDATE Sept 2009.
 gTLD
and
ccTLD
gTLD means the global Top Level Domains, like .com. net .org

ccTLD means the country/region TLDs like .ca .uk .jp

 .
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Internet_top-level_domains click on the screen capture of the wikipedia page to see an easy layout of the current gTLDs 
and the 
ccTLDs
.
overcrowding
in the .com
domain 
space

new XXX domain added
 
 
 
 

 

UPDATE MARCH 2011
 
KEY
POINTS
One of the points I (WTGR) made several years ago was that there are good points and bad points to creating a XXX TLD - one of the good points might be the "release" of many names in the ".com" area which could go move over to the ".XXX" and leave the word free for ".com" users, for example many girls first names in English, French and Spanish were bought many years ago by the porn webmasters which means "real women" who wanted to own their own name as a domain found it had already been taken for purposes they probably did not want to be associated with.
.
  . X X X Student Jasmeet D. in MGD415 at UTM in March 2011 emailed to provide an update on the situation of the .xxx TLD

Jasmeet explains
"...as of  March 18th 2011, ICANN has approved the .xxx domain name for pornographic  and adult websites. And because of this approval all current adult  websites will be forced to change their domain name to the .xxx  domain. Pornography and adult entertainment companies believe that  this will cause a lot of problems for them and the industry because  all adult websites will be easily compartmentalized and possibly  blocked by governments around the world and limiting access to the  websites, which is the main medium used to reach customers.

In addition, ICANN has also scheduled another meeting for June 20th to  discuss all possible domain name suffixes."

The full article could be found at:
 engadget.com/2011/03/18/icann-has-xxx-domain-names-yes/#

.
Domain
Registration
Process

Apex
Organizations
ICANN 
 
The internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the non-profit corporation that was formed to assume responsability for IP address space allocation,  protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions previously performed under U.S. Government contract.
KEY
POINTS
ICANN is at the top of the complex pyramid of the global domain name and Internet addressing systems.

you are required to go to the ICANN site and read
 www.icann.org/general/

.
Domain
Registration
Process
in Canada
click to hear
The Canadian Internet Registration Authority
"The Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA) is a not for profit Canadian corporation that is responsible for operating the dot-ca Internet country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) for all Canadians in an efficient and professional manner." - from their site  www.cira.ca

.ca domain names must be registered through a certified registrar (such as www.internic.ca) . If the registrant is not a member of CIRA, then chances are your registration will be invalid.
 
http://www.cira.ca/en/home.html contact at CIRA is
James Hale, of  Ken Communications & Public
Affairs,  jhale@kencommunications.com

CIRA will be implementing a Dispute Resolution Policy in 2001 and they are looking for people to be involved in implementing this.

http://www.cira.ca/registrars/ When you are checking with different Domain Registrars to possibly buy a .ca domain, you should check to see if they are officially sanctioned by the CIRA

If you want to find a legitimate Domain Registrar that will sell you a real .ca domain, you can use the CIRA site to find a list - click on the button to the left

..
Domain
Registration
Process
in Canada

an example 
of a 
domain 
registrar
click to hear
 
 
 

 

Below, we feature Internic.ca. There are now (2009) several ways people can sign up for registering a domain in Canada, we feature internic.ca because they are one of the largest, and the people involved with the company were part of the initial efforts to register dot.ca domains in the 1990's.
http://www.internic.ca/ Robert Hall is owner of Internic.ca which allows companies to register domains as .ca or .com. Hall says many good .ca names are free and weren't taken because of the longer regulations to register them. Hall's people at Internic.ca are allowing people to pre-book new .ca names when the system gets opened up in November 2000.
By March 2001, there were 200,000 registrations of domains ending in dot.ca - by Feb 2004, 397,000

At the same time, 41,000 dot.ca domains that were registered under the old system had not re-registered, which means there may be a lot of really good dot.ca domain names become available.
Domain
Registration
click to hear

 

http://www.networksolutions.com/catalog/idnames/ if your name is not available in .com, .net or .ca, then you can check it with other countries

+, if you do not want to be "found" in whois, you can register your domain name privately, this is used when people want to avoid dealing with cybersquatters

.
 
Domain 
Names
.
the
"new"
names
direct to ICANN main web site
NSI - Network Solutions Inc.
In the beginning, NSI was contracted by the U.S. government to assign domain addresses for .com, .net, .org etc. Europeans didn't like this and other regions protested as well. In June 1998 NSI's monopoly ceased. The company created a registration system which is shares with other companies.


"Deadline's Counting Down on .ca Domains"
is the title of Toronto Star writer Rachel Ross' Sept 18th, 2000 article

In the past, Canadians wanting to register a .ca name had (typically Canadian) a lot of rules and regulations. As a result, 80% of the registrations Canadians were taking out were going to the .com space - which is "money going out of the country" said the president of Tucosws (which also does registrations).

.
Domain 
Names

the
"new"
names
click to hear

The following information was supplied by Jennifer W. from MRK 610 Feb 2003
.
"Making Choices: Should I Register a dot-com or a dot-ca Domain Name?"
from  http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/ee00175e.html

Until December 2000, most Canadian companies registered dot-com names instead of dot-ca names. This was partly due to stringent registration rules for dot-ca domain names and to dot-com’s general Internet popularity. However, today, dot-ca domain names are increasingly becoming the number one choice for people and organizations.[in Canada] As the registration rules for dot-ca domain names became less stringent in the Fall of 2000, people, businesses, and organizations of all types began to choose dot-ca names over dot-com names. In December 2000, CIRA had 60,000 dot-ca domain name registrations. By January 2002, that number had increased to over 260,000. That’s still a far cry from the millions of registered dot-com names, but it means that Canada’s Internet name space will be there for you when you need it. Odds are that a domain name you may want to use will be available as a dot-ca but not as a dot-com

Having a dot-ca name immediately identifies an organization as being Canadian. This is useful for companies targeting markets within and outside Canada because Canada is well respected and liked around the world. Despite a wider selection and availability of dot-ca names, organizations should consider registering, if possible, a domain name in more than one domain using some of the available TLDs. This approach will help ensure that potential customers can easily locate the organization’s website. "

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On this page there are several quotes from ecommercetimes.com. Permission was given by Richard Kern, Associate Publisher of the E-Commerce Times,  in an email to Prof. Richardson 2004 Dec 10th,
a hard copy of the email is kep on file in Richardson's permissions binder.

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