see also
last updated 2008 March 31 (brief comments added 2013 Feb 13)
originally created in co-operation with UTSC student Satish Kanwar in Oct, Nov, Dec 2006
amended in Nov 2007 when Satish (now the TA for D06) arranged for Leesa Barnes to come back to D06 a 2nd time to give a guest lecture on Podcasting
. This page used in the following courses taught by Prof. Richardson
MGD 415
FSM 620
BCS 555
MRK 619
former UTSC student Satish Kanwar (CEO Jet Cooper) was very interested in Podcasting several years ago and I welcomed him to write content for this teaching unit we uploaded in 2008.

While podcasting was interesting for several years, it is debatable, by 2013, whether it merits a significant time discussing, since other technologies have arisen which make some of the ways podcasts are used, somewhat outdated - ie. vBlogging - why confine yourself to listen to an audio when you can see the video.

However some people still use podcasts for particular purposes, especially in the context of accessing news content.

In 2013 Satish, Andrew, Verne and several other UTSC alumna (several of which took the course MGTD06 at UTSC) have a very successful "user experience agency" in Toronto  jetcooper.com 

WTGR 2013 Feb 13
While podcasting is new, the concept of podcasting is old - basically, it is the same as reading a newspaper - that is to say you are taking the information with you to go through later at your own convenience.
In the middle ages, much of the population in towns and villages could not read. Only priests, nuns and monks in monasteries or the nobility with private tutors were educated to read.
To get messages and information to the people, a town crier would stand in the centre of the village and cry out the news or announcements shouting in a loud voice.

(Image - town crier, Kingston, Ontario)

When printing presses became more popular and an education system developed and began to be accessed by the general public more people could read - and so people would produce small sheets of announcements which could be taken away and read later - the same concept as podcasting.
of this 

pic supplied by Satish
UTSC student Satish Kanwar (who in 2006 served as President of MESAManagement & Economics Students' Association ) sent an email in October 2006 noting some of the problems associated with podcasting. His email was added in (at the time) to the very small unit on Podcasting.
In Oct 2006 Satish said he'd be able to get a speaker, who was Canadian, and in Toronto, and an expert on Podcasting, to come to class - so he arranged everything. Then several weeks after the guest speaker (Leesa Barnes) came to class in November 2006, Satish sent another big email (first week in December 2006) with some updates and "add ins" for this section. 

In Sept 2007, Satish became the T.A. for D06 and offered to again arrange for Leesa Barnes to come to class in November and repeat her presentation on podcasting.

In the November presentation, we arranged for AV services to digitally record Barnes, and we are in the process of editing the clips and hosting them on a server to the students and view again the presentation given to the class that day.
In the meantime, D06 student Samantha W. made some detailed notes about Barnes presentation - (Barnes covered things slightly differently in 2007 compared to 2006). Samantha agreed to share her notes with the class [thanks a lot] and you can view them by clicking here
Samantha's notes on the 2007 presentation by Barnes

Globe and Mail journalist Terry Weber published an article Dec 7th, 2005 in which he noted the word of the year for 2005 – as picked by the editors of the New Oxford American Dictionary – is podcast.
Weber explained: 
"The term refers to downloadable audio files and draws its name from the hyper-popular line of music players marketed by Apple, although they can be listened to on other players as well."

"Podcasts cover everything from individuals' personal musings on life to recaps of the latest episodes of Family Guy and Lost"

"The New Oxford American Dictionary defines podcast as “a digital recording of a radio broadcast or similar program, made available on the Internet for downloading to a personal audio player.

of the term
www.radiomarketingnexus.com says
"Podcasting is the creation of subscribable audio content from your station or other source that can download automatically to your computer or mp3 device. Due to licensing rules podcasting generally does not include music content. Podcasting is time-shifted, choice-directed programming; it’s to radio what TiVo is to television - attractive content is recorded automatically for playback at the listener’s convenience."

Problems and challenges

Oct 2006, Satish Kanwar emailed
"Hi Prof. Richardson, I was browsing through some of today's technology news (while concurrently studying for test 1) and came by an interesting article regarding podcasting. After   reading it through I also realized we had a growing podcasting section coming later in the course..."

Kanwar makes an abbreviated summary of the Sins…

The article is in reference to the "7 Deadly Sins of Business Podcasts" as outlined by a self-proclaimed podcasting 'Reverend'. The sins are pretty attention-grabbing:

"1)   Pride - Traditional sales funnel VS how it should really look like.

2)    Lust - Traditionally marketers believe sex sells, but that's not the case here.

3)    Envy - Finding a niche VS broad content.

4)    Gluttony - Unrealistic early expectations.

5)    Sloth - Simplicity over all else - and it doesn't take a lot of time, training, or money.

6)    Wrath - "Likeability Factor".  Podcasters have to respect   their audience.

7)    Greed - ROI (return on investment) VS ROLI (return on listener involvement).  Numbers aren't everything in advertising (i.e. do Super Bowl ads really have a direct traceable sales result?)."

Leesa Barnes

The original "7 deadly sins of podcasting..." (listed above) was written by Leesa Barnes www.leesabarnes.comGoogle shows the list has been copied many times and is all over the web by Oct. 2006 (some sites credit Barnes, some do not).
Barnes is co-author of Jump Start Your Podcast and based in Toronto. 

Writer Jason Lee Miller wrote a story on one of Barnes speeches, in which she talks about podcasting. Miller's interpretation of Barnes speech is really useful.See http://www.webpronews.com/topnews/topnews/wpn-60-200610017DeadlySinsofBusinessPodcasts.html
of http://www.webpronews.com

Ms. Leesa Barnes w Prof. Richardson on the occasion of her speech to the UTSC D06 class as a guest lecturer Oct 26th, 2006.


Audio clip (podcast) made by University of Toronto (UTM) students
Betty (Wan-Tzu) C. and Margaret (Tzu-Chiao) H. for
"Witiger Radio Show" in March 2008
http://people.senecac.on.ca/tim.richardson/audio/RadioWitigerClassParticipationMarks.wav http://people.senecac.on.ca/tim.richardson/audio/RadioWitigerClassParticipationMarks.wav Click on the girl's faces to hear the full clip in English and Mandarin - it contains some funny and amusing comments about earning class participations marks and their comments also about the course
As Betty explained in an email March 30th, 2008
"We made this podcast called Radio Witiger for viral marketing  strategy. By using two languages, Mandarin and English, we establish  our target audience and attract both cultures’ attention, as the other  “foreign” language acts as a clue for them. We assume audience only  knows one language and by listening to snips of words in their  language, they will be curious to know the rest of the puzzle,  figuring out the context of the dialogue. In order to do so, they will  have to ask their friends who know the other language, thus, spread  the word of Radio Witiger and Professor Richardson. "
http://www.witiger.com/ViralMarketingExampleFromUTM2008MarchEnglishAndMandarinScript.pdf Click to the left to read the English / Chinese (Mandarin) script of the audio clip 

(but do this after you listen to the audio clip)
- it is funnier to hear the clip first

Rising popularity
The term was originally conceived by journalist Ben Hammersley (www.benhammersley.com) by combining the words “broadcasting” and “iPod”.Somewhat unsuitable considering podcasts can be listened to on any digital music player. 
In fact, critics have argued the term gives too much credit to Apple, charging that the company had little to do with the development of the technology. Some have suggested alternatives like blogcasting and audioblogging.

In general, syndication is the supply of material for reuse and integration with other material...…For many years mainly a feature of print media, today content syndication is the way a great deal of information is disseminated across the Web. Reuters, for example, provides online news content to over 900 Web sites and portals, such as Yahoo and America Online. www.cesa8.k12.wi.us/media/digital_dictionary.htm

Finding podcasts
Finding podcasts has become relatively simple and fast, both due to Apple’s acceptance and integration of it into its iTune’s software and its generally rising popularity.

Now, Apple’s iTunes software (www.apple.com/iTunes) has been hailed “the google of podcasting”.Other popular search locations for podcasts include www.podcastalley.com and www.podcast.net


It’s a Purl, Man (www.itsapurlman.com) – (mentioned by Leesa in her presentation) A podcast about a guy into knitting; definitely a great way to meet chicks (i.e. all the comments are from females)!
Work at Home Moms Talk Radio (www.wahmtalkradio.com) – Started as an interest in the form of an internet radio station.Converted to the podcast approach because costs were too high in the other method.
Starbucks: Our Coffee (www.starbucks.com/ourcoffees) – Received lots of negative feedback and bad reviews, stopping at episode 3.Focused too much on types of coffee beans.Could have gotten customers to send in podcasts about their favourite coffees or even store workers experiences with interesting orders (i.e. Niles’ peculiar coffee order from Frasier).

Ask a Ninja (www.askaninja.com– You got questions, ninja got answers.

Rocketboom (www.rocketboom.com) – Daily video podcast.

French Maid TV (www.frenchmaidtv.com) – Teaches users (typically males) how to register a domain name… with a unique twist.

Disclaimer - not all viewers may think frenchmaidtv.com is appropriate content for  a mixed gender audience, however I am a professor, not a censor, so view it if you wish 


Examples (class-generated)
Reggae Dancing – Lori S. in UTSC D06 (Fall 2006) suggested this podcast about a personal interest of hers talking about different moves in reggae dancing.Click here to listen to what Prof. Richardson played for the class.

Snowboarding – Angie L. in UTSC D06 (Fall 2006) suggested this podcast about a personal interest of hers discussing (and making money off of) great places in Ontario to go snowboarding.

Gaming – Scott N. in UTSC D06 (Fall 2006) thought about a podcast in the gaming industry.However he brought up a big concern that there are already TONS of podcasts out there about everything gaming.Prof. Richardson spun the idea to a unique new concept: making a podcast reviewing gaming podcasts!

The key when developing a new podcasting idea is “becoming a google for something” (further discussed in the problems and challenges later in this section).Go niche and become insanely popular within it!

“Selling a house”
What a podcast entails can be summarized with an analogy of how one goes about selling their house.

When selling your house (sitting on your land), you “stage” it and then hire a real estate agent to promote it.As such, the formula for selling your house is:

(Sale = Land + House + Sales Agent)


Parallels can be drawn when discussing the composition of a podcast.Your podcast (“house”) must be hosted somewhere (“land”) and sold to users via a distribution software / search engine (“sales agent”).This formula for a podcast is:

(Podcast = Host + MP3 + iTunes)


Cdn Podcast Listeners Survey

Enter the podcasting world from the viewpoint of just under 1000 Canadians at www.canadianpodcastlistenerssurvey.ca/.

The new ROI
A relatively new concept is ROI as “Return on Influence” VS “Return on Investment”.As the competitive environment grows and the markets change accordingly, the way companies’ measure performance must also adapt.When companies adopt innovative mediums such as corporate blogging, or in this case, podcasting, they should measure results accordingly with the new ROI.
This also answers the age old question in marketing: how effective are Superbowl commercials?Impossible to answer with the old definition of ROI, the new ROI clearly shows the massive return on influence that Superbowl ads have (i.e. the reason why many companies launch new campaigns or products with Superbowl ad investments in the millions).

The long tail
The concept of “the long tail” comes from Chris Anderson, used to describe business models of companies marketing in the information age.
“Anderson argued that products that are in low demand or have low sales volume can collectively make up a market share that rivals or exceeds the relatively few current bestsellers and blockbusters, if the store or distribution channel is large enough. Examples of such mega-stores include the online retailer Amazon.com and the online video rental service Netflix. The Long Tail is a potential market and, as the examples illustrate, the distribution and sales channel opportunities created by the Internet often enable businesses to tap into that market successfully.
The long tail, colored in yellow.
Red = Big business

Yellow = Long tail – the most important part of the market

In essence, small markets (niche marketing) are the new in, targeting the often ignored groups.The analogy plays off the fact that most large organizations “close the door on the long tail” of the cat; paying attention only to the mass market.

The long tail is where podcasts come into play and are most successful.

A detailed account of Anderson’s long tail concept, using companies marketing in the information age as examples, can be downloaded at http://www.changethis.com/10.LongTail/download/?screen=0&action=download_manifesto.

The "Political / Legal / Regulatory" Environment effects Podcasting in a number of ways, as pointed out by this UTM student below.
George N. at UTM student in MGD415 in March 2007 sent a rather lengthy email in which he explored the ramifications of copyright issues in podcasting.
George said
I was going through some websites earlier and I found an interesting article on copyrights and podcasting. Before the lecture on podcasting, I had a brief idea on what podcasting was. I knew it was the recording and broadcasting of audio text over an audio player. Since listening to your lecture, I have a better understanding of what podcasting is and the potential that it brings. However, I did realize that in your lecture, there was no mention of podcasting and the copyright issues associated with it. I hope that this article that I found will be a starting point to understand this issue better.
The article that George found, and refers to is titled
"Copyright Law and the Perils of Pirate Podcasts"
and was posted on the technewsworld.com site March 14th 2007
George reviewed the article "Copyright Law and the Perils of Pirate Podcasts"
and made these comments for us
According to this article, more people are starting to use podcasting as a means for personal entertainment in the form of music. The music that is being podcasted may be copyrighted materials or it may be materials that have not been copyrighted. The article discusses about the legal implications that a person may have if they podcast copyrighted materials. To legally broadcast copyrighted materials, a person must gain permission from the legal owner of the material. However, this has often been ignored when it comes to podcasting. At the moment, most people are more concerned about the sharing of music over file-sharing applications such as bittorent and previously Napster. I would believe that one day organizations will turn to podcasting and will be prosecuting those who are sharing these files without proper permission from the owners. 
WTGR replies
Thanks for the good comments, and it serves to remind us that the best way to build your website and online content is to obtain permission as you build - INSTEAD of having to go back later and try to find everybody you quoted and ask for permission - which is one reason why I keep a couple of 3 ring binders with copies of every email that I receive with permission to quote stuff on witiger.com

spoon marketing

by Tina Forsyth & Andrea J. Lee
Authors, Pink Spoon TM Marketing: The Art & Science of Building A Multiple Streams Businessrecommended by Barnes


for future exploration
Unleashing Creativity With Student Podcasts

  Prof. W. Tim G. Richardson © www.witiger.com