HACKING&
CRACKING
& the Trojan Horse technique
this page last updated 2016 June 3rd

see also  http://www.witiger.com/ecommerce/hackersvideo.htm
 
This web page has audio clips - just click on the icon (like the one to the left) and you can hear Prof. Richardson's voice adding additional information to topics on the page. turn on your speakers to hear audio clips
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. This page used in the following courses taught by Prof. Richardson
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MGT D06
MGD 415
MRK 410, MRK 619
BCS 555
MGM 723
MGD 426
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..
LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
After completing reading this unit, and listening to the lecture in class, students will have information about:

    o What is Hacking
    o Hacking techniques, ie. pinging, DNS
    o Where to get hacking tools 

This page is prepared by Prof. Tim Richardson for his students. The purpose is to put some basic info together in one place about Hacking & Cracking. This is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the subject but rather a collection which would serve the purposes of students taught by "witiger".

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INTRODUCTION

http://people.senecac.on.ca/tim.richardson/audio/audiohacking1.wav

What is Hacking? 

In the broadest terms hacking is just a slang expression for people that try to figure stuff out. For example, your microwave breaks down, so you buy a new one - but instead of throwing the old one out, you take it apart and look at the parts for interest sake to see if you can understand how it worked. 

In computer terms, hacking can be used in a mild way to describe simple looking for ways to see things - like hidden code on a page, or it can be used for strong meaning like a series of specific actions done to allow someone to access a password protected situation. 

One thing has to be clear to students, hacking requires curiosity, and knowledge - you have to have some degree of above average understanding of computers and the internet in order to do hacking things - otherwise you will not be successful; and, you must be curious - you must have a personality that causes you to want to find out how things work, or break them apart. It is this curiosity aspect that drives people do click around places on line and find out information that "normal" people wouldn't. If you were a person who, as a kid, liked to take apart the old family toaster, or if you ever unscrewed the back of an old SONY walkman to see how it works, you have a hacker personality.

.http://www.clickz.com/clickz/stats/1713921/online-fraud-losses-hit-usd437m
http://www.clickz.com/clickz/stats/1713921/online-fraud-losses-hit-usd437m
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ia5LN0rBgrI YES THIS PAGE IS USEFUL

Nov 2011 - former UTSC student (MGTD06 in 2008) Hasan Shahzad stopped by to talk about his work in Mutual Funds at Royal Bank and mentioned that frequently he references material from this page in order to educate clients as to some risk and threat situations they should be careful about regarding identity theft and hacking.
 youtube.com/watch?v=Ia5LN0rBgrI 

Thanks Hasan for mentioning this.
WTGR
 


 
What is Hacking?

Definition

Dave K. of MRK 610 in March 2003 found this site
 formerly at http://www.hackerethic.org/hacker.html
which has a good explanation of the several ways to think about hacking and what it means.

"
1. A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their  capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary.
2. One who programs enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who enjoys programming rather than just  theorizing about programming.
3. A person capable of appreciating hack value.
4. A person who is good at programming quickly.
5. An expert at a particular program, or one who frequently does work using it or on it; as in `a Unix hacker'. (Definitions 1 through 5 are correlated, and people who fit them congregate.)
6. An expert or enthusiast of any kind. One might be an astronomy hacker, for example.
7. One who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing limitations.
8. [deprecated] A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence  `password hacker', `network hacker'. The correct term for this sense is cracker."

this list comes from  The Jargon File (published as The New Hacker's Dictionary [1996]), ed. by Eric Raymond

.

pic submitted by 

Seneca MRK 616 student
Joseph M. in March 2009 send an email saying 
"The term hacking seems to have a different perception between my generation and my parents generation. "

Joeseph says
"I would like to touch onto the points you expressed about "Hacking."  The term hacking seems to have a different perception between my generation and my parents generation. The word hacking to [my parents] instills fear and a sense of threat due to all of the negative press that has come with banking card fraud and identity theft through computer hacking. However I find with my generation we take the term hacking with less severity. I believe that this is do to the fact of how hacking has actually sort of helped us use popular gadgets like the iphone. When the iphone was first released Canadians were unable to use it because it would not work with our wireless carriers, however popular hacking programs like the "pwnage tool" developed by the dev team (a popular team of developers)http://blog.iphone-dev.org/  allowed for Canadians and people worldwide to purchase an Iphone that was not available yet in their country, and hack it themselves through a well developed and easy to follow "

WTGR responds
"good points Joseph, for many people, hacking just means "figuiring out stuff and it is not something necessarily negative

Joseph adds
Here is an interesting video I found about iphone (2007) hacking.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZgITSfrEILQ
It has David Pogue taking you on a tour of third-party programs for the iPhone and Pogue explains how Apple feels about people "hacking" the iphone
 
http://people.senecac.on.ca/tim.richardson/audio/audiohacking1.wav

The Trojan Horse method is named after the situation in the Hellenic War where the Greeks offered a large wooden horse to the Trojans as a peace offering - when the Trojans pulled the horse into the city, the Greeks snuck out at night when everyone was sleeping, opened the gates, and let in the rest of the Greek army who slaughtered all the inhabitants of the city. 

adb

pic submitted by Nick

University of Toronto (UTM)  student NickB. sent an email March 2008 saying
"Hi Professor Richardson,
After talking about the Trojan Horse hacking method it reminded me   of  a situation that happened to me about 3 months ago. "

Nick explains what happened to the right

Nick says
I received   a  message from a friend on Microsoft Live Messenger that told me  to open a file that was titled "pictures from last weekend".  Considering i  was with him that weekend i was tempted to open it. However, before i open any file sent to me on MSN, i ask the  person  what it is. There  was no response from my friend so i  discarded  the message.  About five minutes later i received  another message  from that same friend now  saying "look how drunk  i was" and there  was another .zip file attached to it.  I knew  that something was  wrong because this friend is never  online on  MSN and NEVER send me  anything through it. I called me  friend  immediately and found out  that he had opened a similar file on his computer and he now had a  virus because of it.  Because of the virus, his computer was now  sending out corrupted virus files to everyone on his contact list.

I found an article after class that explained how hackers where  using  this Trojan Horse virus, hidden in .zip files on MSN, to attempt to  steal users' credentials by luring them on a phishing  wesbite.  After  there login details wre stolen, the attackers could login into their  accounts and find new victims by sending   the virus link each of their  contacts.  The article also explained   that because of the growing  popularity of Instant Messenging,   hackers are using it to send virusus in order to affect as many people as possible.

After talking to my friends about the situation, i was surprised to  find out that many of them have come into contact with this  message  previously from other friends they had on their contact  lists and a  good portion of them opened the file and now had a  virus on the  computer because of it.  At the peak of this Trojan  Horse virus i had  approximately 6 .zip files a day from friends on   my list who where  wanting me to download files such as "look at  Paris Hilton now", or  "What was he thinking"

Here is a link to the article,
http://news.softpedia.com/news/Hi-I-039
-m-A-Virus-Please-Wait-While-I-039-m
-Infecting-Your-MSN-Messenger-71447.shtml   Thanks, 
(link still good June 2016)

adb

..dfbd
Trojan
Horse
method
of
hacking
. dfbadb..dfbdbf
 getcybersafe.gc.ca/cnt/rsks/cmmn-thrts-en.aspx 
Federal government list of threats
 
.
Trojan
Horse
method
of
hacking
Dr. Joseph Lo wrote a good explanation of Trojan Horse attacks on the Internet Relay Chat (IRC) Help website
http://www.irchelp.org/irchelp/security/trojan.html
(link good in June 2016)

These are a good list of points to consider in terms of avoiding getting infected in the future?
www.irchelp.org/irchelp/security/trojan.html

Dr. Joseph Yuan-Chieh Lo is a professor at Duke University Medical Center

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Trojan
Horse
Defense
  1.NEVER download blindly from people or sites which you aren't 100% sure about. In other words, as the old saying goes, don't accept candy from strangers. If you download commercial games or other software from "warez" sources, you are not only breaking copyright laws, it's also just a matter of time before you fall victim to a trojan. 
   2.Even if the file comes from a friend, you still must be sure what the file is before opening it (as Melissa and the "Love Bug" proved). Remember, just opening a trojan (by double clicking, previewing, etc.) unleashes its damage. In general, there is no reason for even a friend or colleague to send you an executable. When in doubt, ask them first, and scan the attachment with a fully updated anti-virus program. 
   3.Beware of hidden file extensions! Windows by default hides the last extension of a file, so that innocuous-looking "susie.jpg" might really be "susie.jpg.exe" - an executable trojan! To reduce the chances of being tricked, unhide those pesky extensions. 
   4.NEVER use features in your programs that automatically get or preview files. Those features may seem convenient, but they let anybody send you anything, not just dangerous trojans but also pornography, huge files to tie up your bandwidth and fill your disk, etc. For example, never turn on "auto DCC get" in mIRC, instead ALWAYS screen every single file you get manually. Likewise, disable the preview mode in Outlook and other mail programs. 
   5.Never blindly type commands that others tell you to type, or run pre-fabricated programs or scripts (not even  popular ones). If you do so, you are potentially trusting a stranger with control over your computer, which can lead to trojan infection or other serious harm. 
   6.Don't be lulled into a false sense of security just because you run anti-virus programs, which do not protect perfectly against many viruses and trojans, even when fully up to date. Anti-virus programs should not be your front line of security, but instead they serve as a backup in case something evil sneaks onto your computer. 
   7.Finally, don't download an executable program just to "check it out" - if it's a trojan, the first time you run it, you're already infected! 

Dr. Joseph Yuan-Chieh Lo is a professor at Duke University Medical Center; he provided consent to use this list in an email May 19th, 2005. Copies of emails are kept on file in the permissions binder.

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www.theepochtimes.com
During the 1st week of October 2007, Richardson was interviewed by Joan Delaney for the English-Canada version of the international newspaper The Epoch Times. The story was about Identity Theft and associated circumstances such as viruses, hacking and social engineering
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Richardson was quoted saying "one of the reasons identity theft is on the rise is the ease with which intruders can hack into people's computers. "Think about guns for example; can you imagine what would happen if you're walking down the street and guns are lying on a ditch and there's an arrow that says here's the bullets and there's another little arrow that says here's how to load it? Well, this is the problem with the Internet," says Richardson. "There are many websites where people can download simple hacking software and then use it to hack people, and then [there are] instructions in chat rooms and message boards about how to do hacking, and there is no law against that." "
w
Hacking
getting
easier
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Hacking
getting
easier
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

KEY
POINTS
The purpose of showing a story about how Hacking is getting easier is to convince the reader that if hacking is getting easier, then more people are going to try it - it is a sick aspect of human nature - but the truth.
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http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story2&cid=581&ncid=581&e=4&u=/nm/20020803/tc_nm/tech_defcon_dc_2
Permission to quote from Yahoo!, use the Yahoo! logo, and use screen captures, was given in an email by Debbie Macleod, Yahoo! Marketing Manager Jan 21st, 2005. Copy of the email is kept in the permissions binder.
.
Hacking
getting
easier
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Hacking
getting
easier

"More and more things are embedded in computers. We could put the same  code on a TiVo ( news - web sites) if we wanted to," Aaron Higbee, a security consultant at Foundstone of Mission Viejo, California. TiVo allows people to  record TV programs while away or while watching other programs at the same  time.  Firewalls -- the computer security barriers that organizations depend on to defend against outside intrusions -- are worthless against such attacks, Higbee  said. While they are configured to block suspicious traffic from getting into the   network, they also permit any type of traffic to get out, he said.   To create a tunnel to a remote computer, an attacker must first get physical  access to devices or network connections in the building.  FIVE MINUTES TO CREATE HAVOC  Sometimes they can rely on unsuspecting souls inside the company to do their dirty work for them by sending them an innocent-looking compact disc that contains tunneling software.   A disc containing a special program to activate itself can find the network and  reach the Internet on its own, creating the opening for a hacker to wreak havoc inside the company's network, Davis said.   Another method of unlocking the network door and opening the tunnel is for the  hacker to gain physical access to an office building and plug simple devices onto the network.   "Five minutes on the inside is all you need," said Davis, who does penetration  testing for companies to see how easy it is to compromise their systems.   The speakers demonstrated for the crowd how an attacker can slip a tunneling CD into a CD-ROM drive, a Sega Dreamcast ( news - web sites) gaming  console, or a Compaq iPaq, and connect to the network.  Once a connection is established, devices such as the Sega game player can  analyze the network for routes data can travel to the Internet and establish a  secret tunnel to an outside computer controlled by the hacker."

Permission to quote from Yahoo!, use the Yahoo! logo, and use screen captures, was given in an email by Debbie Macleod, Yahoo! Marketing Manager Jan 21st, 2005. Copy of the email is kept in the permissions binder.

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Hacking
consequences for business

http://people.senecac.on.ca/tim.richardson/audio/audiohacking1.wav

ecommercetimes.com carried a story on their site 
"Credit Titans Cut Ties to CardSystems" July 20, 2005

In this story, writtern by Peralte C. Paul of the The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, it was revealed that the company CardSystems Solutions, which handles credit card processing for VISA and AMEX had been badly hacked recently. Paul explains "The hacking incident, which CardSystems discovered in May, included 22 million Visa and 13.9 million MasterCard accounts. American Express and Discover have not provided numbers."

As a result of so many accounts being comprimised, and investigation was launched by authorities. Paul writes "The company, which processed more than US$15 billion in transactions last year for Visa, MasterCard International, American Express and Discover Financial Services, already is at the center of two federal probes into its security  breach."

The story in July 2005 is that VISA and AMEX have decided to withdraw their use of services provided by CardSystems Solutions.

A VISA spokesperson said ""Despite some remediation actions taken by the processor since the initial reporting of the data compromise, Visa cannot overlook the significant harm the data compromise and CardSystems' failure to maintain the required security protections has had on Visa member financial institutions and merchants, as well as the significant concerns it has raised for cardholders"

Bottom line: if you get hacked, you can lose business; in the case of this American card processor, the business loss could be so large that it may force your company to close down.

Permission to quote from ecommercetimes.com  was given in an email by publisher Richard Kern in an email Dec 10th, 2004. Prof. Richardson is also a contributing writer to ecommercetimes.com. Copies of emails kept on file in the permissions binder.

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Examples of obtaining information about hacking from large security institutions and associations
see http://www.infosyssec.org/infosyssec/security/hackhow1.htm
http://www.infosyssec.org/infosyssec/hackhow1.htm
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Who are hackers? 

Mafiaboy

The purpose in talking about Mafiaboy is to give a window into how a person like this came about, and the "impact on society" that his actions, and others like him, had after his exploits where revealed. 

In almost all cases of high level hacking (including mafiaboy) the cracker who carried out the actions boasts and brags about their actions to a circle of like-minded acquaintainces - this boasting is what inevitably gets them caught since someone usually then tells the authorities. 

The truly best "hacks" are never known cause people keep their mouth shut.

The story of Mafiaboy has been carried on many online and offline magazines, newspapers - all over the world. One of the best summaries of the story, from a Canadian point of view, is the piece that appeared in the National Post in May 2002. Mafiaboy is a Canadian teenager from Montreal.

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http://www.nationalpost.com/search/story.html?f=/stories/20020525/337557.html&qs=mafiaboy

if you try to read this story on the National Post site, and the link is taken down, click here
 http://www.witiger.com/ecommerce/mfiaby.htm
 
 
Gov'ts
involved
in 
fighting
hacking.
.
KEY
POINTS
The Philippines has suffered from a lot of situations in which people use access to advanced technology to carry out crimes in P.I. and worldwide. The government agencies of the Philippines have been fighting hard against criminal activity and have met with a mix of success and failure. Here is a recent story of success.
(Tim Richardson lived in the Philippines in 1988 while working for the Cdn Gov't)

.
Gov'ts
involved
in 
fighting
hacking.
"The "Love Bug" computer virus in 2000 caused damage estimated at $10 billion as it shut down computer systems throughout the world, including at the Pentagon and the British Parliament, but the Philippines had no computer crime law  under which it could make an arrest. The hacking ring was cracked after the country's main phone company, Philippine Long Distance Telephone Co, asked for help to stop the scam, police said. The hackers tapped into computers controlling long-distance phone calls, then sold calls to their clients at prices around half the normal rate. Immigration officials said two of those arrested were Jordanians and the third  was a Filipino. The ring had amassed about $1.9 million from their hacking operations since last year."

Permission to quote from Yahoo!, use the Yahoo! logo, and use screen captures, was given in an email by Debbie Macleod, Yahoo! Marketing Manager Jan 21st, 2005. Copy of the email is kept in the permissions binder

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http://www.witiger.com/ecommerce/hackingexample.htm
We have our own example of hacked, and original pages which you can view by clicking on the screen capture above.
http://www.witiger.com/ecommerce/hackingexample.htm
 
Pinging
 
 
 
 

 

Ping - tests the connectivity between Internet hosts
  • with your computer turned on, and connected by modem to an ISP (your browser does not have to be open) simply type "ping" at the DOS prompt, followed by a domain - below is a screen capture example of what you will get
.


 
KEY
POINTS
http://people.senecac.on.ca/tim.richardson/audio/audiohacking1.wav
The purpose of showing you were such nasty stuff is on the WWW, is to prove a point about the availability of programs which can be used to disrupt or bring down sites.

If you therefore understand that there are many many places people can get such "tools", then you will be much more careful about your security online because you know that the threat and risk of an attack is very real.

.
Hacking tools are subdivided into some of these categories
  • Denial of Service
  • Mail Bombers
  • Port Utilities
  • Novell Programs
  • Sniffers
  • Phreaking
.c
 
Hacking
- example of vulnerability to 3rd parties
KEY
POINTS
Your vulnerability to hackers is not just direct between you and the threat, it can also involve third parties who process business information for you. Many companies trying to run "lean and mean" to cut costs, outsource specialty services to call centers. There have been some examples where these third party players get hacked, which in turn means the hacker comes into possession of confidential information of the clients.

WTGR

...
A perfect example of "a chain is as strong as its weakest link"
Permission to quote from Yahoo!, use the Yahoo! logo, and use screen captures, was given in an email by Debbie Macleod, Yahoo! Marketing Manager Jan 21st, 2005. Copy of the email is kept in the permissions binder
.
 
Hacking
- Canadians
at risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Hacking
- Canadians at risk
 
 
 
 

 

KEY
POINTS
Sometimes when you are being told of a threat - it does not seem credible unless you can provide an example of the situation effecting people close to you. Ryan T., a MRK 610 student in Feb 2003, found a good example of Canadians being hacked in a story he read in the Toronto Star. 
....
This a story by Tyler Hamilton. Tyler writes a lot of the IT and e-commerce stories for the Star and is very knoweldgeable and well informed.
.
.
 
Hacking
- Canadians
at risk
 
 
 

 

"The Bank of Nova Scotia disclosed yesterday that 7,000 of its Visa customers were exposed to the computer-security breach in the  United States that has left up to 8 million major credit-card accounts vulnerable to fraud....It was the first such public statement to be made by a major Canadian bank since the security breach, now determined to be a  hacker attack, was first reported late Tuesday night. About 3.4 million Visa accounts and 2.2 million MasterCard accounts were affected, including 60,000 and 40,000 Canadian accounts, respectively. Both Visa International and MasterCard International said in statement that they became aware in early February that an "unauthorized intruder" had accessed the data, which was stored by a third-party firm in the United States that processes transactions for merchants."

permission to quote from the Toronto Star given  by Ellen Roseman (writer) and Joanne MacDonald (TORSTAR SYNDICATE SALES) in emails in 2004. Copies of emails kept on file in the permissions binder.

.
Hacking
- College students 

getting into the campus computers

KEY
POINTS
Among the stories about hacking are the "urban legends" about a college student hacking in to the school computer to obtain some information or change marks - well,,, actually, that is true and still does happen.  As recent as March 2003 there was a story in the Associated press, carried by Yahoo that a  student hacked into a University of Texas computer  system."
....
.
.
"Christopher Andrew Phillips, who is studying computer science at the Austin campus, was charged with unlawful access to a protected computer  and unlawful use of a means of identification. Phillips said he wrote and executed a computer program to access a university Web site that tracks employees who attend training classes, authorities said."

Permission to quote from Yahoo!, use the Yahoo! logo, and use screen captures, was given in an email by Debbie Macleod, Yahoo! Marketing Manager Jan 21st, 2005. Copy of the email is kept in the permissions binder

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Going after the Hackers and Spammers

Bounties !

.
KEY
POINTS
While it is sensational to provide information on what Hacking is, and some of the things Hackers and Spammers have done, it is important to recognize that serious efforts are being made to control and deal with the effects of this activity.

WTGR

.....
Suhail K. in BCS 555 in Sept 2004

Khalid found a story explaining how the U.S. government has established "...a bounty system for spammers, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission  said offering US$100,000 to $250,000 to whistleblowers inside the spamming community would help catch the online criminals."

The story, written by by Jay Lyman for TechNewsWorld, 2004 Sept 17th, states 

"Although bounties for virus writers offered by Microsoft (Nasdaq: MSFT) have proven somewhat effective in snagging the computer criminals, some experts are doubting the effectiveness of bounties for spammers. Still, other analysts said any deterrence against spamming is needed, particularly given the increasing amount of spam and the ongoing brazenness of its senders.... Industry analyst Joyce Graf called a spammer bounty system a "great idea," adding that spammers now feel they are immune to prosecution and often brag about their spamming exploits."m
.
KEY
POINTS
There are mixed opinions as to whether the offering of a bountry woud be successful with spammers. It might work with Hackers and Crackers, who often brag about their exploits in various online chats, and are therefore vulnerable to a jealous person turning them in, but Spammers are motivated by money - they don't brag about their exploits so much, and the successful ones make enough money that they could counter-bribe people thinking about turning them in.

A legal consideration would also be that anybody in a position to have enough inside information to turn in a Spammer, is probably someone who is themselves involved in illegal activity and may be vulnerable to prosecution.

...y
ppt @ http://www.witiger.com/powerpoints/IT~security/hackers~creditcardfraud~identitytheft.ppt
http://www.witiger.com/powerpoints/IT~security/hackers~creditcardfraud~identitytheft.ppt click on the screen capture to the left. It is a powerpoint presentation about hackers, credit card fraud and identity theft. 

The ppt. presentation is part of a "guest lecture" given by John Florinis. John is a Seneca BCS and IEC graduate and also a graduate of Ryerson University. At the time of the lecture March 2003 he was with the Internet Commerce section of Scotiabank.

This dept in Scotiabank is responsible for Visa Account Information Security and has been recently [2003] sold to an American company www.paymentech.net

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link no longer good This is one example of many places you can go on the Web to find programs that you can download to do hacking and cracking. Some of the programs require a considerable degree of hardware and software knowledge, some are just "point and shoot"

One of the dangers of trying to download such programs is that the program itself may infect your computer with a result that compromises you seriously

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