A Collection of Acronyms and Terms Commonly Used in the Tourism Industry

Based primarily on the Tourism Glossary published by in the text Passport: An Introduction to the Tourism Industry
Fourth Canadian Edition
- this list apparently originally came from the Ontario Tourism Education Corporation.

à la carte: meal choice from complete menu, regardless of price.

à la minute: made to order.

à la mode: topped with ice cream, usually dessert such as apple pie.

A-card: form used with front office posting machines to reconcile and report cash at close of first shift and alternate shifts thereafter. See also B-/C-/D-card.

a.m. report: morning report status of vacant rooms.

AAA: American Automobile Association.

AARP: American Association of Retired Persons.

ABA: American Bus Association, association of motorcoach owner/operators.

ABBA: American Bed and Breakfast Association.

ABCIslands:ArubaBonaire, and Curaçào.

abeku: Japanese “fashion” or “love” hotels that often resemble European castles or alpine chalets, and provide garden settings. Offering 360-channel TV and saunas. These are get-away places for discreet Japanese who live in thin-walled, crowded, high-density buildings.

ABTA: Association of British Travel Agents; also Association of Bank Travel Agents.

ABTB: Association of Bank Travel Bureaus.

ACA: Awareness, Concern, Action; also Awareness, Courtesy, Attitude.

academic market: that segment of marketplace whose travel dates and plans revolve around an academic calendar.

access code: used to gain entry, for example, to a restricted area, computer system, telephone line.

accessibility: availability or approachability for all persons.

ACCI: Associated Cultural Clubs, Inc.

accommodation: bedrooms occupied by meeting attendees.

accommodations industry: the hotel and motel business, which is very closely related to the foodservice industry.

accompanying person: any individual who accompanies a conference participant, not necessarily involved in scheduled activities.

accordion fold: paper folded like an accordion.

account executive: person responsible for management of office.

account receivable: company, organization, or individual registered or not who has an outstanding bill.

accounting: recording and interpreting financial records so as to determine matters such as profit, loss, assignment of costs.

accounts payable: record of purchases and payments made to suppliers.

accounts receivable ledger: aggregate of individual accounts receivable records.

accounts receivable: record of sales and payments made to company.

accreditation: process wherein agency or government body recognizes program of study which meets certain predetermined standards.

ACED-I: Association of Conference and Events Directors-International.

ACF: American Culinary Federation.

ACFEI: American Culinary Federation Educational Institute.

acidity: in wines, natural acids that appear.

acquisition cost: cost of acquiring something.

AC: Air Canada

ACTA: Association of Canadian Travel Associations.

ACTE: Association of Corporate Travel Executives.

ACTS: Airlines Computerized Baggage Tracing System.

actuary: one who uses existing statistics to formulate scientific equations to be used in businesses for purpose of financial forecasting.

AD-75: Agent Discount – 75%. Airline rate usually reserved for agents and operators who are major source of business; granted airlines discretion.

ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act.

add-ons: additional tour features that are not included in tour price.

adds: last minute reservations added to reservation list on day of arrival.

ADEA: Age Discrimination in Employment Association.

adjacent rooms: rooms side-by-side. (adjoining rooms)

adjoining rooms: rooms that abut along corridor but do not connect through private doors. (suite, adjacent rooms)

ADS: Agency Data Systems.

advance deposit: deposit furnished by a guest for a room reservation the hotel is holding.

advance reservations: securing rooms in advance of convention.

adventure tour: tour designed around some adventurous activity such as raft riding, hiking, or ballooning.

advertising: any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by identified sponsor.

advertising message: information and image an event wants to convey to the public.

AEA: Association of European Airlines.

aerial lift: see ski-lift.

AFA: American Franchise Association.

affiliated hotel: one of chain, franchise, or referral system, membership of which provides advantages, particularly national reservation system.

affinity mode: membership organization, such as school or business.

after departure: late charge.

after-departure charges: late charges.

after-fact monies: promotional monies received by tour operator from supplier only if tour project has materialized.

afternoon tea: light snack comprised of delicate sandwiches and small sweets served with tea or sherry.

age: age of wine measured by year of grapes used to produce wine.

agency appointment: travel agencies approved by IATA to represent group of carriers.

agency ledger: division of city ledger dealing with travel agency accounts.

agenda: outline of a meeting.

aging: slow subtle completion of fermentation usually in large wooden barrel or glass lined vats.

AGTE: Association of Groups Travel Executives.

AH&L: American Hotel and Lodging.

AIDA: Attention, Interest, Desire, Action

AIMP: Association of Independent Meeting Planners.

AIO: Attitudes, Interests and Opinions.

AIOD: telephone equipment that provides Automatic Identification of Outward Dialing for billing purposes.

air mile: 6,075 feet.

air miles®: vouchers valid for purchase of airline tickets, awarded by institutions to clients as incentives for using their services.

air/sea: travel programs or itineraries using some combination of both air and sea transportation.

AIRIMP: AIR Reservations Interline Message Procedures.

airline crew rooms: accommodations contracted by airlines for their crews and pilots.

airline discount: special hotel rate for airline employees.

airport code: unique internationally recognized three-letter code for an airport. (LAX = Los Angeles; YYZ = Pearson, etc.)

airport hotel: property near airport.

airport taxes: local taxes levied by authorities.

AITO: Association of Incentive Travel Organizations.

al dente: vegetables or pasta that are slightly undercooked, so they remain slightly firm.

alcohol: chemical formula of ethyl alcohol, a preservative and intoxicant found in alcoholic beverages.

Algoma country: lands in Ontario east of Lake Superior. (Rainbow Country)

all expense tour: travel package that includes cost accommodation and travel charges.

all-inclusive: all expense paid.

all-suite hotel: hotels that only rent suites.

allergen: substance that causes allergic reaction.

allocentric: enjoys varied and unfamiliar activities (psychocentricmidcentric)

ALPA: Airline Pilots Association.

Alsace: wine growing region in northeast France that produces dry, fresh spicy wines. Primary grape varieties grown are Gewurtztraminer, Riesling and Muscat.

Amadeus: computer system founded by Air FranceIberia, Lufthansa as SAS airlines.

ambiance: hotel or restaurants atmosphere and setting or overall impression and mood created.

amenities: complimentary items in a hotel

amenity spa: spa with resort.

American Plan (AP): hotel rate that includes room, and continental or full breakfast, lunch, and dinner. (European plan, modified American plan, dine around plan, Bermuda plan)

AMEX (CO):AMericanEXpress Company.

Amtrak: National Railroad Passenger Corporation; government-subsidized corporation that operates all major passenger train service in United States. (VIA rail)

anemometer: wind speed indicator.

angostura bitters: secret combination of herbs mixed in rum, made in Trinidad to spice drinks.

anti-collision system: for ski-lift operations, microcomputer system on detachable ski-lifts which prevents carrier collisions within stations.

anti-roll back device: on ski-lift, mechanism that prevents unintended reverse rotation.

anti-runaway device: prevents ski from sliding away from wearer when binding releases.

antipasto: Italian appetizer plate that includes fish, meats, marinated vegetables.

AOG – Aircraft On Ground, used by flight crew to refer to an airplane that is NOT taking off because of some mechanical delay

AP: American Plan.

APEC: Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation.

aperitif: before dinner cocktail, used to stimulate appetite.

APEX: Advance Purchase EXcursion fare

Apollo: computer system sponsored by United Airlines/Covia Corporation.

appellation: laws governing wine production in France.

appetizer: small portion of hot or cold snack, a dish other than soup served before dinner to stimulate appetite.

appointment: authorization to sell supplier’s tickets or product.

apprentice: beginner who works under a trained and experienced person until learning a skill.

APU: Auxiliary Power Unit. In ski-lift operations, machine having capability to move aerial lift system with power source independent of prime mover.

arbitrator: unbiased third party asked to settle disagreement after hearing both sides who will abide by the arbitrator’s decision.

ARC: Airlines Reporting Corporation.

archipelago: group of many islands.

area code: in telephone systems of Canada and United States, any unique three-digit sequence used by customers to route calls to their proper destination. (WATS; ten-digit area; also international access/country/routing codes)

area tour: tour that spends limited amount of time in several countries.

aroma: scent associated with grape variety used to make wine.

ARPA:Alberta Recreation & Parks Association.

arrival time: that hour by which guest specifies he or she will arrive to claim reservation.

arrival/departure/change sheet: form on which all guest check-ins, check-outs and changes are recorded, sometimes three separate forms.

ARTA: Association of Retail Travel Agents.

ASAE: American Society of Association Executives.

ASBE: American Society of Bakery Engineers.

ASEAN: Association of South-Asian Nations.

ASFSA:AmericanSchool Food Service Association.

ASH: Action on Smoking and Health

ASHFSA: American Society for Hospital Food Services Administration.

ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

ASP: Area Settlement Plan

aspic: flavoured gelatin.

ASSE: American Society of Sanitary Engineers.

assertive (person, supervisor, worker): commands respect and cooperation by focusing on goals and treating others with respect.

assets: any possession with monetary value.

assistant housekeepers: supervise day-to-day work of room attendants in larger hotels.

assisted living: service that has some features of full-service nursing home.

association meeting: meetings initiated by association for discussion of business.

ASTA: American Society of Travel Agents.

AT&T: American Telephone & Telegraph.

ATA: Air Transport Association of America.

ATAC: Air Transport Association of Canada.

ATARS: Automated Travel Agents Reservation System.

ATBEC: Association of Tourist Boards of the Eastern Caribbean.

ATC: Air Traffic Conference.

ATEC:Alberta Tourism Education Council. Offers certification meeting industry standards for occupations in Alberta’s hospitality and tourism.

ATI: American Travel Inns.

ATLB: Air Transport Licensing Board.

ATM: Automatic Teller Machine.

ATME: Association of Travel Marketing Executives.

ATP: Agency Training Program.

ATPCO: Airline Tariff Publishing Company.

attendant stop: stop command initiated by operator or attendant on ski-lift.

attendee: registered participant at conference.

attraction: natural or constructed feature that attracts tourists.

au gratin: food item topped with cheese and/or sauce and browned in oven or salamander.

au jus:unthickened sauce made from natural juices of roasted meat or poultry. (broth, béchamel, hollandaise)

auditorium set-up: arrangement of furniture for presentations featuring rows of staggered chairs, separated by aisles facing head table, stage or speaker.

authorization: approval of purchase by credit card company.

automatic stop: on ski-lift, stop command initiated by mechanical or electrical device, without action by operator.

AV: audio-visual.

available basis only: convention reservations that have no claim against block of convention rooms because requests arrived after cutoff date.

available rooms: number of guests rooms hotel has for sale, either total in hotel or number unoccupied on given day.

available room rate: average daily rate paid by guests, computed by dividing room revenue by number of rooms occupied. More recently called sales per room occupied

average daily rate: total room revenue for particular day.

B-card: form used with front office posting machines to reconcile and report cash at close of second shift and alternate shifts thereafter, see A-, C-, D-cards.

baby boomers: those born in Europe and North America during post-war decade, 1945 - 1955.

back of house: support areas behind scenes in hotel or motel including general housekeeping functions.

back of the house: areas in restaurant or hotel not seen by customer.

back to back (full house): sequence of consecutive group departures and arrivals usually arranged by tour operators so rooms are never vacant.

back to back: immediate transfer to connection, without waiting.

backstop: see anti-roll back device.

baggage allowance: number of pieces allowed per passenger at no extra cost.

bain-marie: hot-water bath used to keep prepared foods and sauces hot prior to service, or cold-water bath to assist cooling of food products below 4 degrees prior to refrigeration.

bake: to cook with dry heat.

balance: blend of subtle flavours and physical components.

balance of trade: difference between goods and services nation imports and exports.

balance sheet: financial position at certain point in time; divided into assets, liabilities and equity.

balanced diet: a diet with all the nutrients.

balancer: see sheave assembly.

bank: coins and small bills given to cashier for making change.

bank cards: credit cards issued by banks usually for smaller fee than that charged by travel and entertainment cards.

banquet: a formal meal for a large number of people ordinarily accompanied by speeches or ceremony. (do not confuse with banquette)

banquette: a long fixed seat along one wall of a restaurant. (do not confuse with banquet)

bar: counter where alcoholic beverages are served.

bar porter: person who assists bartender by stocking, cleaning and maintaining order of bar service area.

bareboat charter: vessel rented without supplies or crew.

barrier-free: absence of obstacles which would hinder mobility or person with physical disability.

bartender: person who mixes and serves drinks at a bar.

base fee: arrangement determined by gross operating revenue that assures management company profit.

base station: links radio and telephone communication systems.

basil: sweet clove-like green leaf plant used, dried or fresh, to flavour soups, stews, tomato sauces and vegetables.

batch processing: computer procedure that collects and codes data, entering it into memory batches.

BBL: Bed and Breakfast League/Sweet Dreams and Toast.

BBR: Bank Buying Rate.

beach bum: one who frequents exclusive beach or sea-side resorts as if permanent fixture, in hopes of meeting affluent guests. (ski bum)

beam: breadth of boat at widest point.

Beaujolais: wine growing in district of southern Burgundy, France.

béchamel: sauce made of milk, flour and butter commonly used in making crépes, egg dishes and pastas. (broth, hollandaise; au jus)

bed and breakfast: lodging and breakfast offered in domestic setting by families in their own homes.

bed board: board place under mattress to provide firmer sleeping surface.

bed occupancy: ratio relating number of bed spaces sold to number available for sale.

beer: beverage fermented with grain, usually with an alcoholic content of about 4 to 5 per cent.

bell captain: greets guests, trains and supervises all bellhops, door attendants, and valet parking; also supervisor ofbellpersons and other uniformed service personnel.

bellhops: usher arriving guests to their rooms and carry their luggage.

bellstand:bellperson’s desk located in lobby close to and visible form front desk.

Bermuda Plan )BP): method of quoting room rates where charge includes full breakfast and room. (American/Modified American/European/ dine-around plans)

béarnaise: sauce made of egg yolk, butter, tarragon, white wine, shallots or parsley, commonly used with meat and egg dishes. (bechamel, hollandaise, au jus).

best available: reservation requesting best room or best available room prior to arrival.

bid: offer to perform work for a fixed price.

blackened: cooking term describing meat that has been seared on outside so as to form crispy black crust, usually enhanced by highly spiced condiment. (Cajun).

blackout dates: certain dates (usually holidays) when special rates/fares are not allowed.

blanc: French for white.

blanket reservation: block of rooms held for particular group with individual members requesting assignments from that block.

block: restriction placed in pocket of room rack to limit clerk’s discretion in assigning rooms.

blocking: supporting and stabilizing boat while it’s out of water.

blush wine: white wine made from red grapes, skins of grapes are left in juice long enough to give wine pinkish hue; also known as rose wine.

BOAC: British Overseas Airline Corporation; former name of British Airways.

boarding pass: allows passenger entry to (usually) airplane.

boarding point: where passenger gets on vehicle.

boarding time: when passenger gets on vehicle.

boardroom set-up: arrangement of furniture for presentations with chairs around square table.

body: substance of wine from alcohol and tannin in wine.

body language: signals sent or perceived through nonverbal cues such as posture, eye contact, gestures.

boil: to cook in water heated to boiling level of 100 degrees.

book: to sell hotel space, either to individual or to group needing block of rooms.

booking code: indicates type of fare.

booking form: document listing full particulars about person buying product or services.

bookkeeping: detailed records of financial transactions.

booster seat: riser placed on chair so that young child can reach table.

bouillabaisse: traditional French dish combining seafood in stock with tomatoes, spices and herbs; distinct flavourings are fennel and saffron.

bouillon: strong clear soup made from meat.

bouncer: one in bar who forcibly removes disorderly patrons.

bouncing: walking guests to another accommodation because of overbooking; also forced removal of disorderly bar patrons.

bouquet: smell of fermented, aged wine. (breathing, nose).

box: reservation term that allows no reservations from either side of boxed dates to spill through.

BP:Bermuda Plan

brainstorming: problem-solving session in which a list of problems are solved by group interaction.

braise: form of moist heat cooking using larger cuts of meat simmered in sauce in a covered pan.

break-even: point at which revenues match expenditures.

break-even point: point at which costs equal revenue.

break-fork pin: in ski-lift operations, U-shaped brittle pin designed to break and interrupt safety circuit when lift component is displaced.

breakage: gain that accrues to hotel or tour operator when meals or services included in package are not used by guest.

breakdown: disassembly of and clean-up of a function room after it has been used.

breakout session: small groups sessions within meeting organized to discuss specific subjects; also called roundtables.

breathing: wine breathes when it mixes with air and begins to oxidize. (bouquet; nose).

brew pub: microbreweries that operate in tandem with bar or restaurant.

broadhead: arrowhead made of steel; designed for maximum penetration of animal.

brochette: meat, seafood and/or vegetables.

brochure: printed sales tool.

broil: booked on direct heat from hot coals or flame,

broth: thin soup made with vegetables, meat, fish or poultry.

brunch: meal served after breakfast but before lunch.

BSP: Bank Settlement Plan.

BTD: Business Travel Department.

bucket: file that holds guests folios, often recessed on countertop.

budget: estimate or financial projection.

budget planning: preliminary guide or budget.

budget pro forma: budget provided in advance to prescribe form or describe items.

buffet: table set with ready-to-eat foods or quickly prepared foods; food presented for self-service.

bulk mailings: large quantity of mail sent out at one time at special rate.

bullwheel: in ski-lift operations, large wheels at terminals that change haul rope direction by 180 degrees.

bullwheel brake: see emergency brake.

bullwheelrider: passenger on ski-lift who fails to unload at terminal and continues around bullwheel.

bump: moving a reservation to accommodate another.

burgundy: wine grown in central eastern France. (Alsace).

burnout: condition caused by stress, rendering worker unable to work effectively.

bus: vehicle for transportation of many passengers.

bus stand: table or counter used to store utensils and dishes for service.

business environment analysis: evaluation of external trends and forces affecting event.

business-corporate traveller: people travelling on business who use tourism facilities such as hotels, restaurants, car rentals, souvenir stores, tours, etc.

busserbusperson: person who sets and clears tables in a restaurant.

butcher: cuts meats and prepares them for cooking.

BVI:British Virgin Islands.

BWIA: British West Indian International Airways. (Better Walk If Able [MRP] )

C/LAA: Caribbean/Latin American Association.

CAA: Canadian Automobile Association.

CAB: Civil Aeronautics Board.

Cabana: room on beach or by pool, separated from main house and sometimes furnished as sleeping room.

cabaret set-up: for meetings, round tables with chairs facing head.

cabinet classroom set-up: for meetings, series of rectangular tables perpendicular to head table; chairs along sides.

café latté/café au lait: hot drink made with espresso coffee and steamed milk.

CAIC:Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce.

CAIL: Canadian Airlines International Ltd.

Cajun: demographic term associated with coastal population of Mississippi/Louisiana area; also refers to cuisine from this area characterized by highly spiced dishes and blackened meats.

callbrand: alcohol product called for by name by customer.

call sheet: form used by telephone operator to record room and hour of morning call.

callbook:bellperson’s record of calls and activities.

calories: the units of heat used to measure the energy producing value of food.

canapé: appetizer prepared on bread, toast or crackers.

cancellation: guest’s request to hotel to void reservation previously made.

cancellation clause: provision in contract detailing terms of cancellation, including penalties.

cannibalize: eat-away at market share of existing products.

capacity: on ski-lift, number of passengers per specific time period, or maximum load per carrier, refers to both uphill and downhill loading.

cape: hide removed from animal for trophy mount.

caper: pickled flower bud from Mediterranean shrub used to season or accompany foods.

capital investment: investment in an enterprise for the use of its trademark in the selling of a product or service.

capital resources: total amount of money and money-related resources that a person possesses or can obtain for use in an enterprise.

cappuccino: hot drink made with espresso coffee and foam from steamed milk. (Café latte/café au lait)

captain: supervisor in team serving group, whose primary function is to take customer orders.

captain: one in charge of tables and service in a certain part of a restaurant; may also prepare special meals. Being phased out in most restaurants.

CARA: Chinese American Restaurant Association.

carafe: glass container without handle used to serve wine.

carbohydrates: substances in foods that provide heat and energy.

career: person’s progress in chosen occupation or industry.

Carib: Member of Indian people of Northeastern South America.

carnival: season immediately preceding Lent, and observed with merrymaking.

carp: large fish; also “to complain”.

carriage: on ski-lift, frame on four wheels, running on track that supports and turns bullwheel, connected to tensions.

carrier: device for carrying passengers; also name of specific airline.

carrier code: three letter designation for airport.

carry-out: foodservice establishment from which customers take prepared food to eat at another location.

carrying capacity: maximum number of wildlife and people that can be sustained by area over specific time period without negative impact on local culture, residents, environment and experience of participants.

cash budget: schedule of anticipated revenues.

cash float: amount of money, usually small bills and coinage that make change for guests.

cash flow: monthly bank balance, plus revenue minus expenses.

cash paid-outs: moneys disbursed to guests as advances or loans and charged to their accounts like other departmental services.

cash sheet: departmental control form maintained by front office cashier.

cashier’s report: cash turn-in form completed by departmental cashier at close of watch.

catastrophe plans: developed by security staff to ensure staff and guest safety and to evaluate possible disaster scenarios.

caterer: one who, on contact basis, supplies, prepares, delivers and serves specially ordered meals for groups of people, such as members of social gathering, large convention, or small business meeting.

catering: a mobile service that provides food for special events.

cathode ray tube: television screen that displays information put out by computer, also called VDT video display terminal.

CATS: Customer Attendance Tracking System.

caviar: fish eggs, usually from sturgeon.

cay: small low island, also called key.

cayenne pepper: hot pepper used to spice meat, fish, eggs, sauces, vegetables.

CCTC : Certified Corporate Travel Executive.

cellar: store for wine usually controlled for temperature and humidity.

central processing unit: hardware/software nucleus of computer that performs and monitors essential functions.

CEO: Chief Executive Officer.

certification: issuance of formal document attesting to set of skills, knowledge and abilities. (ATEC, OTEC, STEC).

CFCC: Canadian Federation of Chefs and Cooks.

CFSEA: Canadian Food Services Executives Association.

CGOT: Canadian Government Office of Tourism.

CHA:Caribbean Hotel Association.

CHA: Certified Hotel Administrator.

chain: group of business outlets owned, operated and managed by same company under same name.

chain of command: established lines of authority.

chair-lift: ski-lift having chair-like carriers as opposed to T-bars.

Champagne: wine district in northeastern France. Also sparkling wine made in district. (AlsaceBurgundy).

champagne method: sparkling wines made from secondary fermentation.

chandlery: store specializing in boating supplies.

channels of distribution: method by which goods and services are delivered to customer/client.

chardonnay: white grape variety.

charge back: credit card charges refused by credit card company for one reason or another.

charge slip: form used to imprint credit cards.

CHARMS:Caribbean Hotel Association Reservation and Management System.

CHART: Council of Hotel and Restaurant Trainers.

chart of accounts: specified account numbers to which assets, liabilities, revenues and expenditures may be assigned.

charter airline: airline that supplies charter and other nonscheduled flights.

charter operator: tour wholesaler who assembles package tour and sells it to public or tour operator.

charter tour: tour taken by club, organization, or other pre-formed group.

CHE: Certified Hospitality Education.

check in: all procedures involved in receiving guest and completing registration sequence.

check-in time: time at which guests check-in.

check-out: all procedures involved in guest departure, including settlement of account.

check-out hour: that time by which guests must vacate rooms or be charged an additional day.

check-out room: room which needs cleaning after guest has been checked out.

chef: person who is in charge of all functions of kitchen; accomplished cook either the head cook, or the one who prepares complicated specialties.

chef d’étage: captain of waiters who has most direct contact with dinners.

chef de partie: line chef or station chef.

chef de rang: front waiter who sees to service needs of guests as they dine.

chef de salle: head waiter who is responsible for service provided in dining room.

chowder: soup of potatoes combined usually with seafood.

CHRC: Canadian Human Rights Commission.

CHRIE: Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Education.

CHRS: Centre for Hospitality Research and Services.

CHSE: Certified Hotel Sales Executive.

chutney: sweet, spicy fruit and vegetable relish commonly served with curried foods.

cider: fermented apple juice.

CINET: Convention Information Network.

circle check: visual check of taxicab’s exterior performed by walking around taxicab.

circle trip: type of round trip journey in which return journey differs from outbound journey in terms of routing or class of service.

CITC: Canadian Institute of Travel Counsellors.

city ledger: accounts receivable ledger of non-registered guests.

city ledger journal: form used to record transactions that affect city ledger.

city package tour: tour similar to independent package tour, but visits only one city.

city terminal: airline ticket office, located somewhere other than the airport.

clarify: cooking term meaning to make clear; when used with regard to butter, water and milk solids have been removed, leaving purified butter fat.

class: quality of hotel with average room are usual criterion.

class: ranking system of accommodations. 

classical restaurant: restaurant that offers gourmet-style cuisine, extensive wine list and elegant decor.

classroom set-ups: rows of rectangular tables with chairs facing the head.

CLIA: Cruise Lines International Association.

client: one who pays fee to company or another individual in exchange for services or goods.

clinic: workshop-type meeting to develop attendees’ skills.

close of day: arbitrary hour that management designates to separate records of one day from those of next.

closet bed: see murphy bed.

club: association of persons with some common objective, usually jointly supported and meeting periodically.

club car: on a train, car where luxury seating and special service are available at a charge.

CMAA: Club Manager Association of America.

CMP: Certified Meeting Professional.

CN: Canadian National Railway.

CNATA: Canadian National Aboriginal Tourism Association.

co-operative advertising: two or more companies sharing costs by advertising their products together.

coach: section for economy travel; deluxe touring vehicle.

coaching inns: developed after stagecoach routes were established in 1600s, these inns fed and lodged travellers overnight and exchanged tired horses for rested ones.

coaster: small cork, glass,or plastic shape placed under glass to protect table surface.

cocktail lounge: place that serves alcoholic drinks, usually in more comfortable surroundings than a bar.

COD: Channel of Distribution.

cognac: superior brandy distilled from wine that was made from grapes grown in Cognac region of France; cognac is type of brandy, but not all brandies are cognac.

coloured transparency:coloured celluloid strip placed in room rack pocket as flag or indicator of room status.

commercial foodservice: operations which compete for customers in the open market.

commercial hotel: transient hotel catering to business clientele.

commercial rate: reduced room rate given to business persons to promote occupancy; special discount.

commission: percentage of total sale paid to travel agents.

commissionable: indication that hotel will pay travel agents standard fee for business placed.

committee: refers to advisory, task or governing committee.

communication: successful exchange of information from one person to another.

communications centre: area in meeting venue for telephone, fax, telex or other communications.

community analysis: evaluation of community and region surrounding event to identify opportunities to promote events.

comp: short for complimentary accommodations.

companion program: services to accommodate special needs participants and companions.

companion room: specially equipped washroom (not gender specific) easily accessible to special needs participants and their companions.

company made reservations: reservations guaranteed by arriving guest’s company.

competitor analysis: evaluation of event’s competition to identify opportunities and unique selling points.

concession: operation run independently within hotel property; right to do business for a fee on someone else’s premises.

concierge: European position occasionally found in Canadian hotels, responsible for handling guest’s needs; answers questions, solves problems, and performs services of private secretary for hotel’s guests.

condiment: item served to enhance flavour and/or appearance; food product used to enhance and accompany main course.

confectionery: sweet foods such as candies and cakes.

conference: large meeting held to exchange information, to solve problems or to deal with specific developments. (congress; convention).

conference resume: detailed summary of overall meeting requirements prepared by organizers.

configuration: arrangement of seats.

confirmed reservations: hotel’s agreement, usually in writing, to guests’ reservation requests.

conflict of interest: conflict between public organizations and private interests.

congress: international meeting similar to conference and convention.

connecting rooms: adjoining rooms with direct private access making use of corridor unnecessary. (suite; all-suite hotel).

connecting service: passenger must change mode of transportation between departure and destination.

connection: transfer from one vehicle to another.

consultant: specialist who offers services to a number of different customers on a job-by-job basis.

consumer demand: demand by the public for a given product or service.

consumer show: trade show at which products or services are sold to general public.

continental plan (CP): hotel rate that includes room and continental breakfast. (American/modified American/European/Bermuda/dine around plans.)

contingency plan: alternative arrangement in case things don’t work out. (catastrophe plans).

contra: exchange of goods or services from one business for goods and services of another business.

contract agreement: written agreement describing the conditions of a business arrangement.

convenience food: foods precooked to be served with minimum of preparation.

convention: meeting involving general group session followed by committee, followed by committee meetings, workshops and events. (congress; conference).

convention tour: tour for members of association or group attending such events as conventions, trade shows or conferences.

cook: in restaurant terminology, an assistant to the chef.

cook-out: meal cooked or served outdoors.

coquille: shell-shaped baking dish used for preparing seafood in sauce.

cordon bleu: garnished or accompanied by ham and Swiss cheese.

core list: list of items always in stock.

corkage: fee charged to customers who bring their own alcoholic beverages to licensed premise.

corky: taste and aroma of wine that has a spoiled cork.

corner room: outside room on corner of building having two exposures.

corporate meetings: called to introduce new product or for training.

corporate travel manager: handles all aspects of travel arrangements for corporation employees.

correction sheet: form used with front office machines to record posting errors for later reconciliation by right auditor.

costs (fixed): expenses that do not vary with level of activity.

costs (variable): expenses that vary as activity levels change.

cottage country: name used by Torontonians for southern and eastern coasts of Georgian Bay, and lands stretching eastward from there to Quebec border; easily accessible locations for summer residences. Proper names encompassed by this appellative include MuskokaHaliburtonKawarthas (referring to region of Kawartha lakes).

counter service: restaurant service where customers are seated at a counter.

countersign: confirming signature added to previously signed document.

country code: in telephone systems of Canada and United States, second sequence of digits dialed by customers that routes overseas calls to proper country. (area/routing/international access codes)

coupon: check-like form used by hotel travel agencies; also called voucher.

course: food or group of food served at one time or intended to be eaten at same time.

couscous: grain dish made of cracked wheat bulgur and seasonings; served hot.

cover: eating utensils for each dinner.

cover: place setting at table; guest in establishment.

CP: Canadian Pacific.

CP: Continental Plan.

CPA: Certified Public Accountant. (actuary).

CPC:Carribean Publishing Company.

CPRA: Canadian Parks & Recreation Association.

CPU: Central Processing Unit.

CQHRT:Conseilquébecois des resources humainess en tourisme.

creative service: individual or company hired to provide expertise in area of creative writing, design or layout.

credentials: recognition from certifying body (e.g., degree, diploma or industry certification).

credit: accounting term that indicates decrease in account receivable.

Creole: sauce made with onions, tomatoes, pepper and seasoning, common to southern United States.

crêpe: thin pancake that can be filled with cheeses, vegetables, meats in white sauce or used for desserts. (omelette).

CRFA: Canadian Restaurant and Foodservice Association

crisis management: see contingency/catastrophe plans.

critical date: prescribed deadline for decision to be made or action to be completed.

critical path: sequence of steps and times for decision to be made or action to complete task or event.

croissant: unsweetened butter pastry.

cross-adoption: process by which local residents adopt values of tourists and tourists adopt values of countries that they visit.

CrossSphereNew name (2004) for the National Tour Association. Professional association embracing travel and tourism industry, and includes tour operators and related vendors and educational institutions throughout North America.

croutons: cubes of bread that are buttered and lightly browned, used in salads and soups.

crowd control: direction provided to attendees to ensure smooth traffic flow.

CRS: Computer Reservation System. Provides information on schedules, seat availability, and fares, and permits travel agents to make reservations and print itineraries and tickets.

CRT: Cathode Ray Tube.

cru: growth classification given to vineyard.

crumbing: to remove debris from table after entrée and before serving desserts using slightly damp napkin and side plate to catch crumbs.

CSA: Canadian Standards Association. (2-98 code)

CSCM: Canadian Society of Club Managers.

CTC: Certified Travel Consultant, awarded by Institute of Certified Travel Agents to those travel professionals with five years or more industry experience and who have completed two-year, graduate-level travel management program.

CTGA: Canadian Tour Guide Association.

CTM: Consolidated Tour Manual.

CTM: Certified Travel Manager, awarded by the Canadian Institute of Travel Counsellors to those travel professionals with ten years or more industry experience and/or who have completed a combination of study and work experience.

CTOA: Creative Tour Operators Association of America.

CTRHT:Conseilquébécois des ressourceshumaines en tourisme.

CTP: Certified Tour Professional.

cuisine: French word used in English meaning a style of cooking representative of a certain ethnic group; for example Chinese cuisine, French cuisine.

culture: sum total of customs, and learned behaviour of any specific period, race or people.

cumin seed: strong slightly sweet spice used toflavour many foods.

customer profile: the demographic/psychographic description of a specific type of buyer.

customs broker: person or company that provides customs clearing services to shipper.

cutlery: utensils used to eat food.

cutlets: small, boneless pieces of meat.

cutoff date: that date on which unsold block of reserved convention rooms is released for general sale.

cutoff hour: that time at which day’s unclaimed reservations are released for sale.

CVB: Convention and Visitors’ Bureau organizations responsible for promoting tourism at regional and local level.

D-card: form on which totals of front office posting machine are printed for use in night audit.

DAA: Dominion Automobile Association.

dacum: (designing curriculum). training program based on skills standards.

dais: podium (stage, riser)

database: electronic store of information that may be processed in various ways, such as a mailing list, statistical data.

day rate: day use rate.

day room: room used for only part of the day.

day use rate: reduced charge for occupancy of less than overnight when party is over to same days rates.

deadhead: aircraft or other transport operating empty.

decant: to transfer wine from bottle to another container (decanter) to separate sediment from wine.

deep fry: to submerge food in hot fat and cook until crispy and brown.

default insurance: client insurance against loss of payment.

deglazing: to dilute with wine, stock or water, concentrated juice in pan that has been used to cook food.

delegate: voting representative at meeting.

delegate profile: description of typical delegate which includes such details as age, sex, hometown.

delegates: participants of convention or conference.

DeltaStar: Delta Airlines computer system.

deluxe: best quality facilities.

demand: (in marketplace) is created by need or desire for goods and services.

demand generator/travel generator: those aspects of destination that attract people to buy products and services.

demi: French word for half.

demi chef de rang: back waiter or busperson who clears all appropriate service from table between courses.

demiglace: brown sauce made with brown sauce.

demitasse: small coffee cup.

demographics: statistical study of people and characteristics of human populations.

demography: counting and classifying of groups of people by age, sex, marital status, income, education occupation and location. (demographics).

demonstration effect: tendency of local people to adopt practices and consumption patterns of tourists visiting their region. (cross-adoption).

density board: reservation system where number of rooms committed is controlled by type

departmental control form: form maintained by each operating department for recording data from department vouchers.

departure tax: service and user fees levied by local authority.

deposit reservation: form of guaranteed reservation for which payment has been received for at least one night’s stay.

deregulation: elimination, or reduction of rules and regulations governing transportation sector (air, trucking, marine).

deropement: haul rope out of position in machinery.

design event: conceptualization of event in pre-planning stages.

designate: person assigned to be responsible.

dessert: a dish served at the end of the meal; most often it is sweet.

dessert wines: sweet wine served with dessert course.

destination hotel: objective of, and often sole purpose for, guest’s trip.

destination image modification: process by which tourist’s overall travel experience can be examined.

deuces: tables that seat two customers.

dietitian: person trained in planning menus from maximum nutritional value.

differentiation: competitive business strategy based on one or more unique selling or serving propositions.

digestif: after-dinner drink intended to aid digestion.

dine and dash: guest in restaurant who leaves without paying for services (also known as walk-out).

dine-around plan: plan that permits tourists to dine at variety of restaurants using vouchers and coupons.

direct agreement: contract with media outlet for advertising services.

direct flight: passengers do not change planes.

direct mail: advertising through the mail.

direct marketing: direct retail sales.

direct retail sales: selling of product or service directly to customer.

direct spending: money that goes directly from tourist into economy of destination.

direct supplier: businesses that directly service tourists and derive income from them, for example, airlines, hotels, restaurants.

discipline: action needed to help employees follow company rules.

discount: amount, usually a percentage deducted from the bill for early payment, bulk purchase, cash payment or other reasons.

discount fares: regular fares to which discount is applied. Used to promote seat sales.

discrepancy: room status recorded at front desk is different than room status recorded with housekeeping; also any disagreement between records.

discretionary income: disposable income.

dish: item on a menu, or container in which food is served.

dispatch: in taxicab business, central location from which all taxicabs in company are directed by means of two-way radio.

disposable income: income available after taxes and all expenses have been paid.

disposables: items thrown away after one use.

distillation: removing liquid alcohol from substance used to produce it by using heat.

DIT: Domestic Independent Tour.

diversity awareness training programs: providing education to hotel management and staff in ways to provide access inclusion.

DMC: Destination Management Company.

DMOs: Destination Marketing Organizations. Organizations in charge of development and implementation for individual states.

DND: Do Not Disturb.

DNS: Did Not Say. Means guest left almost immediately after registering.

doily: paper or cloth patterned circle, used to line serving pates.

dollars: in taxicab, total amount of all fares on meter.

domestic: flight within a country.

Domestic Independent Tour (DIT): custom made tour of part of Canada planned exclusively for client by travel agent.

domestic tourist: person who travels within his/her own domestic country whether on business or pleasure.

donor: person or organization who contributes money or gift in kind for little or no expectation in return.

double: bed approximately 54" x 75" (105 x 155 cm) or room with double bed.

double occupancy rate: rate used for tours where person charge is based on two to room.

double occupancy: room occupancy by two persons, ratio relating number of rooms.

double-double: coffee with two servings of cream and two servings of sugar; also, hotel room containing two double beds; also outside the United States and Canada, a room to accommodate four adults.

double-up: designation of double occupancy by unrelated parties necessitating two room rack slips.

downgrade: move reservation or registered guest to lesser accommodation. (upgrade; up sell)

downtime: time when computer is unavailable.

dram shop legislation: includes laws and procedures that govern.

draught: depth of water boat draws or requires to float.

draught beer: beer dispensed from keg using pressurized system with faucet.

drawn butter: melted butter.

drayage: transportation of material from point of arrival to exhibit area.

dress-down Friday: in some offices, on Friday, as a morale booster, casual dress is permitted.

dry: sweetness of wine.

du jour: French term for “of day”, as in “soup du jour,” meaning soup of day.

duck board: a grill of boards, with spaces between them that can be laid over a slippery floor.

due bill advertising: reciprocal advertising where goods are given for advertising.

dumbwaiter: small service elevator, used to move food, dishes and glasses between different floors of restaurant or hotel.

duplex: two storied suite with connecting stairwell.

duty free: without taxes.

EAP: Employee Assistance Program.

early arrival: guest who arrives day or two earlier than reservation calls for.

early call sheet: form used by switchboard operators to highlight early wakeup calls.

early checkout: guest who checks out before scheduled time.

EC: European Community.

ECAC: European Civil Aviation Conference.

éclair: cream-filled baked pastry, topped with icing or chocolate. (crêpe).

eco-tourism: type of tourism in which vacationers travel to unusual places to observe ecological systems and endangered species in their natural habitat.

ecology: science concerned with the relationships between organisms and their environment.

economy class: standard facilities provided by supplier.

economy of scale: idea that amount of time required to complete a task does not increase at the same rate as the increase in business volumes.

ecotel: hotel whose systems and operations are created with environmental impacts in mind.

ECU: European Currency Unit; also known as Eurodollar, currency used by countries in EEC (European Economic Community).

EDS: Electronic Data System.

educational trips: trip to acquaint travel industry representatives.

EEC:European Economic Community.

EEOC: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

efficiency unit: accommodations that include kitchen facilities.

EFIS: Electronic Flight Information System.

EFNRA: Educational Foundation of National Restaurant Association.

egress: exit.

eiswein: rare wine made from grapes that have frozen on vines. Wine produced is sweet, concentrated and full of flavour.

ELD: Electronic Liquor Dispenser.

elderhostel: network of several hundred universities and colleges in Canada and United States that offer persons of 60 and over programs of educational courses and adventures.

electronic data processing: data handling system that relies upon electronic equipment.

electronic money: computer generated transfer of funds from one account to another.

emergency stop switch: on ski-lift, switch that activates both service and emergency brakes; can be manually or automatically activated.

emotional triggers: words, issues or personalities that emotionally excite or irritate people.

employee suggestion program: incentive program where employees receive cash prizes for their adopted suggestions.

enchilada: flour tortilla around filling of meat or cheese, baked in spicy sauce.

end on end: two or more separate return trip journeys back to back.

energy crisis: situation where available supply of energy resources does not equal demand.

entrée: main dish or course with a meal.

entrepreneur: seeks opportunities for establishing profitable business enterprises.

environmental audit: inspection completed to access practices which impact on environment.

EP: European Plan.

EPCOT: Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow.

equities: assets minus liabilities.

erdgeschoss: German term applied to multistoried buildings describing story at street level. (rez de chausser, ground floor, first floor).

escargot: snail

escort interpreter: title used by U.S. Department of State for individuals who accompany foreign visitors. Their duties include translation, coordination of visitors’ schedules and providing hospitality.

espresso: strong dark coffee, ground very fine and brewed under steam pressure. (cappuccino, café latte/café au lait).

estate bottled: bottled on same estate where grapes are grown; wine produced and bottled by same person.

ETA: Estimated Time of Arrival.

ETD: Estimated Time of Departure.

ETDN: Electronic Ticket Delivery Network.

eurailpass: railroad ticket for unlimited travel on trains in Europe.

eurocity train: inter-city European train with high standards of punctuality and cleanliness.

eurodollar: see ECU.

European Plan (EP): hotel rate that includes room only and no meals. (modified American/Bermuda/dine-around plans.)

evacuation: removal of passengers in terminal (such as from carriers of aerial lift) in manner other than normal discharge.

event: occurrence happening that attracts tourists.

excess baggage: baggage over the allowed weight per passenger.

exchange: excess of cash turn-over net receipts.

excursion fare: specially discounted round-trip fare for travel within specified time-frame.

excursionists: people who travel to site or destination and return home same day.

executive floors: similar to tower; or concierge floors, but sometimes with temporary office space, secretarial service, access to fax machines.

executive summary: one to two page overview at beginning of report containing summary of contents, conclusions and recommendations.

exhibition: display of goods and services, usually staged as part of convention or conference.

exhibitor’s manual: at trade shows or exhibitions, book of instructions and information for exhibitors.

exit sheave: on ski-lift, last sheave in assembly.

expediter: person who calls food orders to kitchen staff and assists to organize orders for pick up.

exposure: direction that guest faces.

extended rate: granting of special convention rate to meeting attendees who arrive prior to and after the official dates of convention.

extended stay market: business traveller who uses hotel as hub for making business calls.

extension: a trip taken before, during or after a tour, which is not part of the itinerary, at an extra charge to the client.

extra meals: American plan charge made for dining room service over and above that to which guest is entitled.

eye contact: messages delivered by looking at another when speaking, interpretations vary from one culture to another. (facial expressions)

FAA: Federal Aviation Administration.

F & B: Food and Beverage.

FABULOUS: Food and Beverage Undergraduate Learning on Unix System.

facial expressions: using one’s face to reveal feelings about messages.

facilitator: one who organizes.

fair share: comparison of number of rooms available.

fair share variance: measurement of an operation’s competitive position.

fam trip: familiarization trip for travel professionals to inspect hotels and restaurants, sample attractions and experience local culture.

family plan: special room rate that allows children to occupy their parents room at no extra charge.

family-style restaurant: restaurant that caters to families; may be coffee shop, family-owned- operated or chain outlet. Consistent food and services and moderate prices. 

fare: in taxicab service, dollar value of each trip.

farm out: assignment of guests to other properties when full house precludes their accommodation.

fast foods: foods that can be prepared, served and eaten quickly; for example a hamburger.

Fast food outlet: provides fast-efficient service from counter. Menu is limited, quality consistent and prices reasonable.

fats: oily substances in food that provide heat and energy and build fatty tissue.

FBO: Fixed-Base Operator.

FCIA: Franchise Consultants International Association.

FCSI: Foodservice Consultants Society International.

FCU: Fare Construction Unit.

feasibility study: survey of general area or specific location to determine financial advisability of developing facilities.

feedback: critical commentary; for example, from guests, employees, students; listener’s reaction to speakers’ verbal and nonverbal communication.

feeder cities: area outside property’s location.

fennel-anise: vegetable with mild licorice taste.

fermentation: process of converting sugar into alcohol.

fettuccine: long, flat noodles that are one-third inch wide.

filet mignon: portion of beef tenderloin, usually 6-8 oz in weight.

fillet: boneless piece of meat or fish (see also cutlet).

finesse: general impression of wine.

finger bowl: bowl of lukewarm water with lemon slice, served with finger foods.

finish: quality and enjoyment of aftertaste, including length of time, taste, lingering. For example, good wines have clean, crisp finish.

fire brigade: hotel staff trained to respond to fires 24 hours a day.

first class: non-Canadian designation for medium-priced accommodations with corresponding facilities and services.

first floor: American term applied to multistoried buildings describing story level with street. (Erdgeschomrez de chausser, ground floor).

first growth: signifies high quality vineyard.

first rider: in ski-lift operations, first trained-staff passenger of day prior to lift opening; performs line check.

FTSA: Food Industry Suppliers Association.

FIT: Frequent Individual Traveler.

FIT: Foreign Independent Tour or Fully Independent Tour.

fixed costs: expenses which do not change.

fixed grip: on ski-lift, grip designed to remain attached to haul rope (as opposed to detachable grip).

flag: device for calling room clerk’s attention to particular in room rack.

flag of convenience: ship of one nation registered under another nation’s flag.

flambé: to heat food or beverage with flaming liqueur.

flat rate: fixed price for services as opposed to per usage charge.

flat ware: table utensils, such as knives, forks, spoons.

flavor: taste of wine.

floor lectern: reading desk used for papers.

floor limit: maximum amount of charges permitted to a credit card user at given property without clearance.

floor load: weight per square foot that floor can support.

floor plan: diagram showing arrangement of furniture; or space available in trade shows.

Florentine: with spinach.

fluid coupling: driveline component between drive engine and gearbox.

flûte: tall, thin bottle used in Alsace and Germany. Also refers to tall, thin champagne glass.

fly-by-night: disreputable business, frequently relocating after completely exhausting local market’s need for its product or services, usually offered at attractive discounts, but with shoddy workmanship and no warranty.

fly-cruise package: vacation package that includes air transportation and cruise.

fly-drive package: vacation package that includes air transportation, rental car and TV.

FOB: Free On Board. Invoice price includes cost of delivery, paid by seller, to delivery destination.

foiegras: goose liver.

folio: running record of day’s charges.

follow-up: takes place after meetings to assess effectiveness.

fondue: to cook in hot cheese, wine or oil.

food and beverage manager: title for one who is in charge of food services management in a hotel.

food processor: manufacturer who processes raw foodstuffs into commercial forms.

food system: the entire chain of processes involved in the production, merchandising of food.

foodie: colloquial term for one who works in food services management, such as caterer.

foodservice industry: a term often used for the entire restaurant and catering business.

foot passenger: in ski-lift operations, any passenger on foot including skier carrying skis.

force majeure: event that can not be anticipated by the tour operator, airline, etc, such as an act of God.

FORCE: Family of Responsible and Caring Employees.

forecast: future projection of estimated business volume.

forecast scheduling: work scheduled based on sales projections.

forecasting: process of estimating future events in food service foreign exchange

foreign independent tour (FIT): international tour planned exclusively for client by travel agent.

forfeited deposit: reservation deposit kept by hotel when no-show fails to cancel reservation, also called lost deposit.

fortified: adding glass of distilled spirit to wine.

fortified wine: alcoholic beverage to which additional alcohol has been added; for example, sherry.

forum: meeting or part of meeting set aside for open discussion for recognized members or outside members. (breakout sessions)

forward planning: see forecasting.

franchise: independently-owned hotel that appears to be part of chain and pays fee for this right of identity.

frappé: drink served with crushed ice.

free market: where exchange of goods and services is based on demand and supply in competitive marketplace.

free pour: to pour liquid without using measuring bar.

free sale: occurs when travel agent commits hotel space without confirmation of property.

freedoms of air: right to 1) land for technical reasons, 2) carry from home to foreign country, 3) from foreign to home country, 4) carry between foreign countries, 5) overfly.

French, Russian, American service: different styles of table service; French is most elaborate, American simplest.

frequent flier miles: program aimed to increase business in the form of credit for future airline tickets with all ticket purchases.

frequent-flyer program: awarding of points for each kilometre flown, which are then redeemable for flights.

fringe benefits: payment for work other than wages or salaries.

frittata: Italian word for omelet.

from bill...to bill number: cross reference of account numbers when bill of guest who remains beyond one week is transferred to new folio.

fromage: French word for cheese.

front: next bellperson eligible for rooming assignment.

front desk: front office.

front of the house: areas in restaurant or hotel the customer sees.

front office: broad term that includes duties and functions involved in sale and service of guest rooms as well as physical front desk.

front-line: person who interacts with and gives service to customers, guests and visitors. For example, bank teller.

full day: measure of chargeable day for accounting purposes; three meals for AP (see American Plan) hotel, overnight for EP (see European Plan).

full house: means 100% occupancy.

full pension or pensione: term used in Europe to indicate hotel accommodations that include three meals daily.

full service: complete line of services at hotels or restaurants.

fully appointed: travel agency officially recognized by major airlines and cruise conferences.

function: planned activity or event.

function board: board or video-screen listing day’s events.

function book: basic control book for function space.

function room block: number of rooms allocated to specific group.

function sheet: detailed instructions relevant to particular event.

function space: space in which functions or events are held.

futon: Japanese sleeping arrangement made of many layers of cotton.

Galileo: British Airways, KLM, Swissair, Alitalia computer system.

galley: kitchen on a ship or airplane.

gantry: in ski-lift operations, structure used to lift haul rope.

GAO: General Accounting Office.

garde manger: in charge of cold meats, fish, decorative presentations of appetizers, buffets and sandwiches.

garnish: to decorate with flavour or appearance of food item.

gateway city: major cities that service international flights.

GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

gazpacho: chilled soup made with tomatoes, green peppers, onions and herbs.

GDP: Gross Domestic Product.

GDS: Global Distribution System, a computer reservations system that permits access to a wide range of travel products and services for reservations and information purposes. .

gearbox: apparatus between drive and bullwheel shaft which converts high input speed to low output speed of bullwheel.

general cashier: chief cashier.

gestures: moving hands, arms, body to emphasize a message.

GIT: Group Inclusive Tour.

GITHE: General Indicator to Hotel Efficiency.

glace:french word for glaze.

gluten: wheat flour protein.

gnocchi: Italian dumplings made from grated potatoes.

GO transit: Government of Ontario transit. Provincially funded inter-city system of commuter trains and buses connecting Toronto with surrounding areas.

goal: objective organization wishes to achieve through actions; where you want to end up.

goblet: large footed glass.

Gold Book:Caribbean Travel Directory published twice annually by CHA and CPC.

golden horseshoe: common name given to prosperous and affluent heavily urbanized and industrialized northwest shore of LakeOntario, spanning from Niagara Falls to Toronto, appearing on map as near-complete circle resembling shape of horseshoe.

goulash: thick Hungarian beef stew.

gourmet: one with educated tastes in food and drink.

grandmaster: one key that opens all guests rooms except those locked from within.

gratuities: gift money given in return for services.

gratuity: money given in appreciation of service.

graveyard: work shift beginning about midnight.

gravy: sauce made from pan drippings, roux, stock or water.

greater Antilles: arc-like area of islands in Caribbean includes CubaJamaicaPuerto RicoHispaniola.

greens fee: charge used for golf course.

grenadine: sweet thick red syrup made from pomegranates used for colouring and sweetening drinks.

grievance: complaint filed by employee against employer.

grill: to cook with indirect heat on top of solid metal service.

grip: in ski-lift operations, device which attaches carrier to haul rope (fixed or detachable).

grip monitoring system: safety switches which monitor status within stations, detachable grip.

gross domestic product: total value of goods and services produced within country, minus net payments on foreign investments.

gross income: total income of a business before any expenses have been deducted.

gross operating profit: revenues minus operating costs before taxes.

gross operating revenue: total payments received for goods and services.

gross registered tonnage: tonnage versus enclosed soak on ship.

ground: electrical connection from panel to earth.

ground arrangements: services provided to client after arrival in destination.

ground floor: British for story at street level. (Erdgeschonrez de chausser, first floor).

ground operator: company that handles all or many travel arrangements in particular area also called land operator or tour operator.

ground services: ground arrangements.

ground time: waiting at airports for flights.

group: number of persons with whom hotel deals as if they were one party.

GRT: Gross Registered Tonnage.

GSA: Guest Service Agent (front desk staff)

GST: Goods and Services Tax.

guarantee: in catering, number of servings to be paid for, whether or not they are actually consumed; usually required 48 hours prior to event.

guaranteed reservations: payment for room is promised even if occupant fails to arrive.

gueridon: serving cart with built-in or stand alone cooking stove.

guest: one who stays in hotel, or attends convention.

guest bill: special form used by hotels for keeping transient account receivable records.

guest check: bill presented to patrons of dining rooms and bars and often used as departmental voucher.

guest day (night): stay of one guest for day or night.

guest elevators: front elevators for exclusive use of guests.

guest history: record of guest’s visits including rooms assigned.

guest ledger: accounts of registered guests as distinct from city ledger accounts, also known as rooms or transient ledgers.

guest profile: demographic analysis of guests.

HAC: Hotel Association of Canada.

half pension: hotel accommodations that include bed, breakfast and one other meal. Modified American Plan.

half pension: European room rate designation which includes accommodations, breakfast and either lunch or dinner.

halo: on ski-lift, circular metal frame which extends below spring box on T-bar and directs rope.

hand-measured pouring: dispensing of liquor using juggler or shot glass.

hanger: on ski-lift, member which connects carrier to grip.

hangers: passengers hanging from ski-lift.

hard copy: computer term for material that has been printed, rather than displayed.

hard costs: docks, equipment, real property and attached fixtures.

hard-ripened cheese: aged cheese with firm texture and varying degrees of sharpness.

hardware: physical equipment of computer installation and its peripheral components.

haul: lifting boat out of water.

haul-rope: on ski-lifts, wire rope which both supports and transports carriers.

head trap: see protection area.

headquarters hotel: property designed by an association or other group as the main centre of such activities.

high season rate: resort’s maximum rate, charged when demand is heaviest, as during middle of summer or winter.

high season: peak season.

high speed shaft: on ski-lift, large steel shaft between prime mover and gear box.

highball: drink of spirits and carbonated water served over ice in tall glass.

HII: Heritage Interpretation International.

hill-sweeps: physical search of hill for skiers.

HLTRF: Hospitality Lodging and Travel Research Foundation.

HMGI: Hotel-Motel Greeters International.

HNL: Hospitality Newfoundland & Labrador.

HOBIC: Hotel Outgoing Billing Information Centre, telephone company’s long distance hotel network.

hollandaise: sauce made of egg whites (béchamel, au jus).

Hollywood bed: twin beds joined by common headboard.

Hollywood length: extra-long bed about 80 inches instead of usual 75.

horizontal integration: merging of various companies who offer different services but under one command; results are diversity of product with lower administrative costs. Sometimes difficult to achieve because of difference in geographic locations, and varying needs of clientele bases. (vertical integration).

hors d’oeuvres: small portions of food served as appetizer.

hospitality: gracious welcoming and serving of guests.

hospitality program: set of activities or services arranged for special guests.

hospitality room: facility used for entertaining.

hospitality suite: facility used for entertaining, usually at conventions, trade shows and similar meetings.

host bar: open bar where drinks are paid by a sponsoring group.

host organization: bodies who initiated meeting.

host/hostess: one in charge of tables and service in a restaurant; also seats customers.

hosted tour: tour whose members are assisted by host, who arranges optional excursions and answers questions.

hostel: dormitory-style accommodations that are often for specific groups such as youth where facilities are basic, shared and supervised.

hot list: list of lost or stolen credit cards.

hotel representatives: independent firms or individuals who promote and process reservations.

hôtelier: French for innkeeper.

hourmeter: electrical meter which records number of hours in ski-lift operations.

house: hotel.

house count: number of registered guests and occupied rooms.

house emergency key: one key that opens all guest rooms including all those locked from within.

house guest: person to whom is extended complimentary facilities or services.

house organ: internal newsletter for a hotel.

house phone: available for guests to place calls within hotel.

house profit: net profit before income taxes from all operating departments except store rentals.

house rooms: guest rooms set aside for hotel use and excluded, therefore, from available rooms.

house use: intended for staff use.

house wine: wine selected by management and served to customers, unless another is ordered.

housekeeper’s report: morning report based on room inspections.

housekeeping department: in charge of maintaining rooms.

housemen: responsible for setup of meeting rooms.

housing: controlling number of sleeping rooms with room blocks actually occupied during particular night.

housing bureau: city-wide reservation office for participating hotels.

housing plan: various types of accommodation facilities that meet needs of meeting.

HR: Human Resources

HSMAI: Hotels Sales & Marketing Association International.

HTI: Hotel Travel Index.

hub and spoke system: organization of routes flights around hub of city.

hub city: gateway city.

hue:colour of wine.

human resources development: training.

human resources managing: personnel management.

HVAC system: Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning system.

hydraulic tensioning: pressurized oil-filled cylinder coupled to carriage to maintain constant tension on ski-lift system.

IAAM: International Association of Auditorium Managers.

IACB: International Association of Convention Bureaus.

IACVB: International Association of Convention and Visitor Bureaus.

IAHA: International Association of Hospitality Accountants.

IAMAT: International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers.

IAT: Independent Air Tour

IATA code: unique number identifying accredited agencies worldwide.

IATA: International Air Transport Association. Seated in Geneva, it provides communication and stabilization for international aviation community.

IATAN: International Airline Travel Agency Network.

IATM: International Association of Tour Managers.

IAWT: International Association for World Tourism.

ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization.

ICTA: Institute of Certified Travel Agents.

ID: Industry Discount.

IEA: International Exhibitors Association.

IFA: International Franchise Association.

IFAPA: International Federation of Airline Pilots Association.

IFTTA: International Forum of Travel and Tourism Advocates.

IHA: International Hotel Association.

IIA: Independent Inn keepers Association.

IIT: Individual Inclusive Tour

illegal aliens: individuals who move to another country illegally, without permission, to enter as either immigrants or refugees; also called undocumented workers.

immigrants: those who move from their country of origin to live and work in another country.

IMO: International Maritime Office.

in-house catering: products and services provided on company property.

in-kind: non-financial support.

in-transit passenger:traveller who is in foreign country enroute to destination.

inbound operators: agencies that specialize in providing tour packages to international travellers visiting United States.

inbound tourism: tourism generated by visitors from foreign countries.

incentive: persons who have won stay in hotel as reward for meeting or excelling their sales quotas.

incentive fee: arrangement that requires management company to take some risk in hotel’s operation.

incentive meetings: motivational in nature, focused on individual, quality is not compromised in interest of economy.

incentive tour: tour offered by companies to employees as reward for achieving corporate goal.

incentive travel: marketing and management tool currently used to motivate people by offering travel rewards for achieving specific goal.

incentive travel operator: company which sells travel incentive programs.

incidentals: All costs to passenger not covered by tour costs, usually telephone calls, room service charges, and so forth.

inclusive terms: phrase sometimes used in Europe to designate American plan.

inclusive tour: all tour components in one price.

incruiting: hiring from within one’s company.

independent: property with no chain or franchise affiliation, although one proprietor might own several such properties.

independent entrepreneur: operates and personally undertakes the risk of enterprise.

independent pleasure traveler: person who has no fixed itinerary when travelling. May use services of travel agency.

independent tours: this type of tour is classified into two types: domestic (DIT) and foreign (FIT). They are both customized tours designed for individuals who prefer freedom and flexibility to the structure of a guided tour.

independents: properties or restaurants which are not chain or franchise affiliated.

indirect supplier: company that caters to tourist/visitor with subsidiary services.

index of leading indicators: data including new manufacturer orders and average weekly claims for unemployment which analysts follow closely to see where economy is headed.

individual business market:travellers on company or government business.

individual leisure market:traveller for leisure as opposed to business.

industrial nations: where high percentage of the goods is produced by manufacturing raw materials.

inebriate: intoxicated person.

information rack (manual only): alphabetic listing of registered guests with room number cross reference.

infrastructure:underlaying economic foundation including transportation and communication systems, power facilities, and other public services.

infusion: immersion of heat-sensitive ingredients into alcohol (maceration).

ingress: entrance.

inserts: advertising material inserted into magazines or mail.

inside room: guest room that faces inner courtyard.

inspectors: supervisory position in housekeeping department for releasing on-change rooms to ready status.

installation: set up period for meeting, trade show or event.

institutional foodservice: operations which serve people who are members of particular societal institutions; foodservices in a large institution such as a hospital, school or factory.

interface: computer term designating ability of one computer to communicate with another.

interline:travelling on more than one airline.

intermediate care centres: health care facilities that offer assistance to persons incapable of living independently and provide only basic nursing.

intermodal: using more than one mode of transportation.

intermodal travel: travel that includes two or more modes of transportation. For example, intermodal tour might include flight to Vancouver, and then train trip to Prince George.

internal promotion: the practice of hiring and promoting from within one’s own company or organization.

international access code: in telephone systems of Canada and United States, initial sequence of digits dialed by customer when calling overseas. (area/routing/country codes).

international account executive: sales/marketing staff specializing in the development of booking business from sources located outside the country.

international tour:motorcoach tour that ties in with other forms of transportation, such as airline service or cruise line transportation.

international traveller: person in Canada who is cleared through customs and immigration.

Interpretation: process of educating visitors to national parks and other recreation facilities through use of marked trails, signs and so on.

intervention techniques: strategies used to reduce risk of guest intoxication.

intervention training: specific programs to help waitstaff deal with intoxicated patrons.

Intourist: Official government agency for tourism of former Soviet Union, responsible for booking tours, setting rates and creating packages.

inventory turnover: number of times average inventory has been sold during specific period.

irish breakfast: consisting of fruit juices, hot and cold cereals, bacon, ham, sausages, eggs, herring, kippers, toast and jam.

ISHAE: International Society of Hotel Association Executives.

isolate lift: turn off main switch of ski-lift.

issue form: record of the date and quantity an item is withdrawn, signed by one who withdraws.

ISSTE: International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators.

ISTA: International Sight-seeing and Tours Association.

IT number: code assigned to inclusive tour for identification and booking.

IT: Inclusive Tour.

ITC: Inclusive Tour Charter.

itinerary: planned route for trip.

ITOA: International Tour Operators Association.

ITX: Inclusive Tour Busing Fare.

IUOTO: International Union of Official Travel Organizations.

James Bay Frontier: lands in Ontario bordering on James Bay and Hudson’s Bay, reaching as far south as Sudbury.

jargon: technical language.

jerky: highly spiced dried meat.

jigger: glass measure used when pouring liquor.

job: titled position in organization where one is remunerated for work done.

job coach: used to train and supervise mentally or physically challenged worker.

job description: general summary of job requirements, responsibilities and remunerations.

joint fare: two carriers combining services to compete with other carriers.

joint venturing: cooperative business promotion activity.

JTO: Joint Tour Operators.

julienne: vegetables or meat cut into match-like pieces.

jump state associations: associations not restricted to meeting in their own states.

junior suite: one large room, sometimes with half-partition, furnished as both parlour and bedroom.

junket: all-expenses paid trip.

keg: cask made of wood or stainless steel.

key-man insurance: insurance against death or serious injury of personal critical to ongoing operation of business.

keynote address: speech to all members of assembly.

keynote session: plenary meeting.

king: extra long, extra wide double bed about 78 by 80 inches.

kitchen brigade: system of kitchen organization in which staff is divided into specialized departments, all contributing to preparation of meal.

kitchen help(ers): entry level worker who cuts vegetables and performs various cleaning duties.

kitchen steward: in charge of kitchen activities.

knock-down time: time needed to rearrange facility after meetings.

knock-up time: opposite of knock-down time.

kosher: food prepared according to Jewish dietary laws.

labour-intensive: employing a large number of workers in proportion to the number of people receiving the service.

laissez-faire leadership: giving employees as much freedom as possible.

lanai: patio.

lanai room: overlooking a garden/patio.

land only: prepaid package of products and services to be used by client at destination.

land operator: see tour operator; also ground operator.

land-cruise package: stay in hotel at destination and cruise.

last: designation for bellperson who most recently completed front desk assignment.

last call: final call for drink orders given prior to closing bar.

last sell room: jargon used for very undesirable room, one sold only after house is filled.

late arrival: guest with reservation who expects to arrive after cutoff hour and so notifies hotel.

late charge: department charge, such as phone or breakfast, which arrives at the front desk.

late check out: room which will be available for cleaning later than posted check out time; also person or group granted permission by the hotel to stay longer than the posted check-out hour without penalty.

launch: placing boat into water.

laundry manager: supervises laundry room attendants.

laundry room attendants: individuals who wash, dry, iron and fold laundry.

layover: overnight, or several hours wait between connections.

LCBO: Liquor Control Board of Ontario. Government agency that regulates availability, price, and proof of alcoholic beverages sold in Ontario.

lead-exchange club: informal community organization comprised of one representative from each local industry and profession.

lead-in sheave: on ski-lift, first sheave in assembly.

leadership: the ability to influence, direct and motivate people.

leakage: money that flows out of economy to purchase outside resources.

lecture: disclosure of scientific or research to purchase to colleagues.

leek: type of onion similar in appearance to green onion, but much larger.

lees: residue or sediment that settles out of wine soon after it is made.

leg: segment of a journey.

legend: portion of map listing meanings of symbols used.

legislation: in OTEC literature, legislation includes regulations and by-laws.

legumes: French word for vegetables.

leisure: freedom resulting from cessation of activity especially time free from work or duties.

leisure travel market: potential clients for the hospitality industry who travel for pleasure as opposed to business.

length of stay: number of days guest remains on property.

letter of agreement: acceptance of proposal.

liabilities: obligations of business, largely indebtedness related to expenses involved in generating income.

liaison: the person who maintains contact between two groups.

life-stage: particular time in life: childhood (0-12); youth (13-17); adulthood (22-50); mid-life (50-70); old age (71 and up).

life-style: values, beliefs, and socio-economic brackets that determine the way one lives.

lifecare communities: long-term healthcare facilities that cater to both dependent and independent older adults.

lifestyle profiling: market segmentation system of analysis similar to psychographics.

lift: ski-lift; also British for elevator.

lift accident: occurrence involving bodily injury or damage to ski-lift equipment.

lift incident: occurrence on ski-lift not involving bodily injury or damage to lift operation.

lift log: daily record of operations, maintenance and other actions performed on ski-lift, can be used as legal document.

limit switch: on ski-lift, roller, wand or arm that interrupts safety circuit when equipment exceeds safe operating limits.

limited menu: food merchandising concept which offers a smaller selection than the normal menu.

limited service: hotel or motel that provides little or no service other then room.

line check: visual inspection of entire ski-lift line, usually by first rider, who is a staff member.

linen closet: storage closet for linens and other housekeeping supplies usually located conveniently along corridor for use of housekeeping staff.

linen room: housekeeper’s office and centre of operations for that department, including storage of linens and uniforms.

liner: on ski-lifts, material used to line grooves in sheaves and bullwheels.

liqueur: strong, sweet alcoholic beverage often served after dinner.

liquor: strong distilled alcoholic drink.

liquor gun: piece of bar equipment used to dispense equal amounts of liquor.

listening: a four-step process that involves paying attention, attaching meaning, evaluating and responding.

LLBO: Liquor Licensing Board of Ontario. Government agency that grants licenses permitting under controlled conditions, sale of alcoholic beverages inOntario. (LCBO).

load: number of passengers on board.

load board: marker showing passengers where to stand when loading onto ski-lift.

loading ramp: area where passengers load onto carrier.

local tour: tour marketed to local group or organization.

lock-out: ski-lift which is disabled so it can not be started up accidentally or purposely; usually achieved through padlocking.

lockout: denying guest access to room, usually because of unpaid bill.

lodging industry: hotels, motels and other overnight accommodations.

log: record of activities maintained by several operating departments.

logistics: tasks undertaken to ensure smooth operations of events.

logo: recognizable symbol of an organization or business.

long stay: person who stays in property for long period of time.

loran: system of navigation using signal pulses from radio transmitters.

lost and found: area usually under housekeeper’s jurisdiction for control and storage of lost and found items.

low season: shoulder season, value season.

luncheon club: local social organization.

maceration: immersion of heat-sensitive ingredients such as fruits into cold base alcohol. (infusion).

machine room: portion of building or enclosure which houses only motive power and driving mechanism.

magnum: bottle of wine which measures two-fifths of gallon.

maid’s report: status-of-rooms report prepared by floor housekeeper and consolidated by linen room to create housekeeper’s report.

mail and key rack: piece of front office equipment where both mail and keys are stored by another room number.

main drive: power source which normally drives ski-lift.

maitre d’: short form of maitre d’hote. Head server.

malt: germinated barley.

malted: process used to germinate grain; involves chemical change in grain which is important to its function in brewing process.

malting: process in which grain is germinated to produce enzyme that can convert starch to fermentable sugar.

management company: independent firm which manages the operations of one or more facilities.

management contracts: owner maintains financial responsibility for property and management company is responsible for operating property with owner’s money.

management hierarchy: where different jobs are connected through a chain of command from greatest to smallest area of responsibility.

manager: administrative lead.

manager’s check: officer’s check.

manager on duty: person in charge when General Manager is off duty.

manual stop: mechanical or electrical device operated by operator or attendant, which stops ski-lift.

MAP: Modified American Plan

MNEs: Motivations, Needs, and Expectations

MPI: Meeting Planners International

MPICC: Meeting Planners International, Canadian Chapter

MTEC: Manitoba Tourism Education Council

marinate: to soak in liquid mixture usually consisting of wine, oil, herbs and spices

marjoram: aromatic, bitter herb.

mark-up: difference between the price merchant pays for an item and the price paid by a client.

market: possible customers for a particular enterprise.

market mix: variety and percentage distribution of hotel guests, conventioneer, tourist, business person, etc.

market niche/market share: small section of market most likely to be persuaded to buy product or service.

market opportunity analysis: evaluation of marketing opportunities.

market research: use of actuarial skills to determine feasibility of establishing business in specific location. (entrepreneur)

market segmentation: concept of dividing market into different parts; usually based on demographic or psychographic information.

market segments: smaller, identifiable groups which can be defined using any set of characteristics, such as those found in geographic, demographic, or psychographic information; subgroups of customers who share specific set of needs and expectations.

marketing: series of activities that find out what customers need or want, and ensures they get it; related groups of business activities with purpose of satisfying demands for goods and services; process of planning hotel’s concept; also series of activities used to determine what customers need or want.

marketing analysis: examination of past marketing efforts to evaluate effectiveness.

marketing mix: elements that influence the salability of a product, such as size, shape, cost.

marketplace: place where goods and services change hands.

MARS plus: Multi Access Reservation System.

marshalling area: see loading platform.

marzipan: small sweet made of almond paste, usually shaped into fruit and used to decorate cakes.

mass tourism: mass movement of people in major cities, usually by bus, streetcar or subway.

mast de-stepping: lowering and removing mast from boat.

mast stepping: raising and securing mast to boat.

master account: one folio prepared for group (convention, company, tour) on which all group charges are accumulated.

master key: one key controlling several pass keys and opening all guests rooms on one floor, also called floor key.

maturity: when consumer demand is fully satisfied by the existing enterprises.

maze: lanes that lead guests to loading point on organized manner.

mechanical backstop: see anti-roll back device.

media: means of communication, such as television, radio, newspapers.

media blitz: intense, concentrated effort to contact media.

media strategy: process of coverage of meeting.

mediator: see arbitrator.

medical meetings: technical meetings of professionals, held on regular basis for purpose of presenting recent research findings to colleagues. (conference; convention).

meet and greet: service of meeting, assisting and greeting guests.

meeting: assembly of people called for discussion of important matters. (business /incentive/scientific/medical meetings; also conference; convention; roundtable).

meeting specifications: complete descriptions of all meeting needs.

meetings market: general classification of the group business potentials available from both associations and corporations.

memo: short written internal communication document.

menu: array of function choices displayed to computer user who selects appropriate function.

menu: food served by a restaurant; also a list of these foods.

menu engineering: tool in menu planning that uses menu as whole, not individual items that make up menu, as measure of profitability.

menu mix: indicator in menu engineering; detailed record of customer preference from menu selection.

merchandise: items for sale.

merchandising: making a product interesting or appealing so that customers will want to buy it.

meringue: egg white and sugar beaten into stiff mixture.

message lamp: light on or near telephone, used to notify occupant that telephone operator has message to relay.

meter: in taxicab, device which measures time and distance to calculate fares.

meter seal: in taxicab, device which is attached to meter and is used to indicate that meter has not been opened or tampered with.

métro: French for subway.

metro: short name referring to greater metropolitan Toronto area; also municipal government of Toronto.

metropass: in Toronto, ticket sold at fixed price granting purchaser unlimited travel for one month on all TTC routes.

mezzanine: floor between ground and second floor.

MFBB: Mexican Food and Beverage Board.

MICA:Mobile Industrial Caterer’s Association.

microbreweries: small, local breweries.

microwave (oven): heats food quickly by means of short waves.

midcentric: midway between allocentric and psychocentric.

middle of the house: engineering, accounting and maintenance facilities of a hotel.

miles: in taxicab, total miles recorded on meter that vehicle has driven.

minerals: inorganic substances necessary for life such as iron or phosphorus.

minestrone: Italian soup made from onions, tomatoes, vegetables and beans.

mini-group: small party of individuals from one to ten people.

minibar: installation of ice, drink and fast food dispensers on floor of hotels.

minimum (charge): least amount charged to a guest.

minimum connecting time: time required to leave one vehicle and board another.

MinimumLand Package: minimum tour expressed in terms of cost and ingredients.

minor departments: less important operating departments (excluding room, food and beverage) like valet, laundry and telephone.

mireproix: equal parts of chopped carrots, celery and onion.

mise on place: French term for put in place. To get ones’ station ready.

misload: guest who fails to load carrier correctly.

mission statement: statement encompassing organization’s purpose and philosophy.

misunload: passenger who fails to unload carrier correctly.

mixed drink: beverage composed of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liquids.

mixology: study or skill of preparing mixed drinks.

mocha:flavour combination of chocolate and coffee.

mock-up: forecasted supplies, human resources and equipment requirements.

MOD: Manager On Duty.

modem: device which allows interaction between telephone and computer.

Modified American Plan (MAP): hotel rate that includes room and continental breakfast or full breakfast and dinner.

mom-and-pop: small, family-owned business with limited capitalization; family, rather than paid employees, furnishes bulk of labour.

mornay: white sauce with parmesan cheese.

morning-call: wake-up call made by telephone operator at guest’s request.

motel: short for motor hotel; lodgings that attract those travelling by motor vehicle.

motivation: internal urgency to accomplish; also the ability to foster this quality in others.

motorcoach: large passenger bus.

mousse: dessert made with whipped cream, flavouring and gelatin.

mozzarella: soft mild Italian cheese.

MPT: Meeting Planners International.

MPICC: Meeting Professionals International (Canadian Council).

MSG: monosodium glutamate (flavour enhancer).

MTEC:Manitoba Tourism Education Council.

multiple access system: computerized reservation system which has direct access to computers of several airlines/travel suppliers.

multiple occupancy: percentage of rooms occupied by more than one person.

multiple product lines: form of segmentation based on variations in a company’s product size, design, layout, quality and price.

multiplier effect: economic formula that calculates effect of revenue in economy.

murphy bed: bed that folds into a closet, or recessed wall.

must: mixture of grape pulp, skins, seeds and stems.

muzzleloader: firearm loaded through muzzle.

NABHP: National Association of Black Hospitality Professionals.

NACA: National Air Carriers Association.

NACE: National Association of Catering Executives.

NACOA: National Association of Cruise Only Agents.

NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement.

NAILM: National Association of Institutional Linen Management.

napery: table linens such as napkins and table cloths.

NAPO: National Association of Pizza Operators.

NARM: National Association of Restaurant Managers.

National Tourism Organizations (NTO’S): organizations national governments use to promote their organizations and countries.

national work force: people in any country who earn wages.

NATO: National Association of Travel Organizations; also North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

NB & BA: National Bed and Breakfast Association.

NBMOA: National Black McDonald’s Operators Association.

NBTA: National Business Travel Association.

NCCR: National Council of Chain Restaurants.

NCR paper: no carbon required. Paper specially treated to produce copies without carbon.

near north: see cottage country.

neat: drink served without ice (frappé).

necessary leakage: cost of promoting tourism abroad.

negotiation: give-and-take process of reaching a decision.

NEPA: National Environment Policy Act.

net fare: price without taxes and commissions.

net income: money remaining after all expenses have been paid.

net non-commissionable: net fare.

net rate: wholesale rate; also net fare.

net square feet: usable floor space.

networking: making business contacts in person by meeting people, or by exchanging business cards.

NFSA: National Food Service Association.

night audit: daily reconciliation of accounts receivable completed during graveyard watch.

night auditor: one responsible for balancing day’s posting.

night clerk’s report: interim report prepared by night auditor or night clerk and used until day audit has been completed.

night club: establishment that offers drinks and food as well as dancing and entertainment.

night lock: security lock that can by used only from inside the room.

nine P’s of marketing: productivity, professionalism, people, performance, power, policy.

nine P’s of packaging: combination of products and services into one package for participants to purchase at single price.

no start: operator cannot start ski-lift due to electrical or mechanical failure or by specified procedure.

no-op: flight which does not go due to weather or servicing.

no-service: guest does not need room cleaned.

no-show: reservation that fails to arrive.

non-insurance: strategy whereby organizations choose not to purchase insurance.

non-revenue: passenger travelling on comp ticket.

non-stop: flight without stops between departure and destination.

NONTA:Northern Ontario Native Tourism Association.

non-verbal communication: messages which are perceived or sent by appearance or behaviour.

North of Superior: lands in Ontario north of Lake Superior.

nose: aroma of wine on nose. (bouquet, breathing).

NOTO:Northern Ontario Tourism Organization.

not-slept-in: room that is paid for, luggage arrived, but not slept in.

NRA: National Restaurant Association.

NSMH: National Society of Minority Hoteliers.

NSSFFA: National Soft Serve and Fast Food Association.

NTA: National Tourism Association.

NTA: National Transportation Agency.

NTA: National Tour Association.

NTO: National Tourist Office. Government agency for promotion of travel.

nuclear power: power generated by atomic reactor.

nutrition: qualities in food that nourish the health or growth of the person eating it.

NWT: N. W. T. Tourism Training Group; also Northwest Territories.

NWTTTG: Northwest Territories Tourism Training Group.

OAG: Official Airline Guide.

objective: step toward goal.

occupancy (percentage of): ratio relating to number of rooms sold to number available for sale.

occupancy rate: percentage derived by dividing total number of rooms occupied during given time period (night, week, year) by total number.

occupational standards: benchmarks against which occupations and/or people in those occupations are measured.

occupied/clean: stay-over room that has been cleaned.

occupied/dirty: stay-over room that needs cleaning.

OECD: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.

OECS: Organization of Eastern Caribbean States.

off-premise catering: products and services delivered to location other than company property.

off-season rate: reduced room rate charged by resort hotels when demand is lowest. (also shoulder season)

officer’s check: dining room check or chit used to comp food or drink items.

OHG: Official Hotel Guide.

OHRG: Official Hotel & Restaurant Guide.

omelet: egg dish prepared by beating (usually 3) eggs and pan frying them into flat circular crêpe-like shape, serving it folded over with filling (cheese, mushrooms, vegetables, ham are popular items). (also known as Italian word frittata).

omiyage: Japanese tradition of giving gifts.

on-change (also check-out room): status of room recently vacated but not yet available for new occupants.

on-line (computer system): electronic access via computer line to all company operations and records.

on-line computer: computer facilities hooked directly to input and output devices for instantaneous communication.

on-request: special request by guest, such as non-smoking room.

on-site guide: guide who remains at attraction as staff member.

one (two-) pull dialing: one (two-) digit telephone dialing that connects caller to hotel services like room service, bellstand, etc.

OOO: Out Of Order.

open bar: private bar where drinks are prepaid by host or sponsor.

open door policy: management willing to listen to employee concerns at all times.

open ticket: ticket which does not specify date for use.

open-jaw: round-trip itinerary in which arrival point is different from departure point for air portion.

operating departments: those divisions of hotel directly involved with service of guest, in contrast to support divisions like personnel and accounting.

operations: component of management which is primarily concerned with the administrative aspects of business.

operator: person in charge of ski-lift who is trained and experienced in normal and emergency proceedings.

operator’s platform: designated area where operators stand to help guests onto ski-lift.

option: item clients may include or exclude.

option date: prearranged date in a contract where the agreement will become good or void.

options: extra excursions or events offered during tour, but not included in tour price.

OTEC: Ontario Tourism Education Corporation. Organization offering certification meeting industry standards for occupations in hospitality and Ontario’s tourism industry. (ATEC/STEC)

other income: category of miscellaneous revenues from departments or activities other than rooms, food and beverage.

out of order (OOO): room is not available for sale because of some unforeseen shutdown of facilities.

outbound tourism: tourism generated by visiting to foreign countries.

outdoor advertising: large advertising displays intended to be seen from afar, such as billboards, neon signs.

outside call: call that enters switchboard from outside hotel; call that terminates outside hotel.

outside laundry:nonhotel laundry or valet service contracted by hotel in order to offer full line of services.

outside room: room on perimeter of building facing outward with exposure more desirable than that of inside room.

over and short: discrepancy between cash on hand and amount that should be on hand.

overbooking: committing more rooms to possible guest occupancy than are actually available.

overflow: business which has been booked but which can not be handled by the property and must be accommodated elsewhere.

overhead: indirect costs involved with doing business.

override: extra commission above standard percentage to encourage or reward quantity bookings; process by which operator bypasses certain limits built into computer program.

overspeed: ski-lift running faster than recommended speed.

overspeed switch: on ski-lift, switch that activates emergency brake if lift exceeds design speed.

overstay: guest who remains beyond expiration of anticipated stay.

p.m. report: complete room status report for all rooms.

PA system: Public Address System.

package: number of services (transportation, room, food, entertainment) normally separate but put together and marketed at reduced price, made possible by volume and breakage.

package tour: travel components offered as unit and sold at fixed price.

paid in advance: room charge collected prior to occupancy; it is usual procedure when guest has light baggage, and with some motels, it is standard procedure for every guest.

paid miles: total miles taxicab has driven while under hire as recorded on meter.

paid outs: monies advanced by a hotel on behalf of a guest.

pantry: area in restaurant where cold foods are prepared.

par stock: total amount inventory normally stocked to operate for set period of time.

parallel tours: similar tours running concurrently. Companies will often offer joint events for parallel tours.

paraphrase: restating another’s words in your own as a test for clear communication.

parent’s room: specially equipped room for caregivers when feeding or changing young children.

parlour: living or sitting room; living room portion of suite.

parlour room: public washroom in property.

PARS: computer system sponsored by TWA.

partnership: two or more companies which enter into agreement to satisfy basic needs.

pass: card or voucher granting admission.

pass key:submaster key limited to single set of rooms (12-18) or floor, and allows access to no other.

passenger load factor: measure of passenger capacity utilization derived by expressing revenue passenger miles as percentage.

passenger mile: one passenger carried one mile.

passport: government document issued for travel abroad.

PATA: Pacific Asia Travel Association.

pâté: mixture of meat paste usually served as appetizer.

patio: outdoor dining/recreation area.

patio rooms: having direct access to outdoor areas.

Patois: dialect of French spoken in former French possessions.

PAX: Industry abbreviation meaning “passengers.”

PBX: Private Branch Exchange.

PCMA: Professional Convention Managers Association.

peak period: time of year when service demands are at their highest. Also peak season, peak time.

pension: European for facility offering modest accommodations; also an allowance paid by an employer to an employee after retirement, based on years of service.

penthouse: accommodations, usually suites, located on top floors of hotel.

people: staff of organization.

per diem: “Per day” spending allowance for meals.

performance review: meeting between supervisor and staff member to discuss work attitudes, abilities, productivity and concerns.

perks: classification of additional non-financial compensation, such as special parking spaces, use of company car, use of company condo, special hotel reservations.

permanent (guest): resident of long-term duration whose stay may or may not be formalized with lease.

personal selling: oral presentations selling goods to large audiences or individuals.

pesto: Italian sauce made of garlic, olive oil, pine nuts, fresh cheese and fresh basil.

petite fours: small cakes served after dessert.

petty cash (box): technique for controlling petty cash disbursements by which special small cash fund is periodically reimbursed.

PHA: Preferred Hotels Association.

phantom stop: ski-lift that stops for no apparent reason.

phonetic alphabet: system where letters are not confused when speaking; letters are represented by words

phylloxera: parasite that attacks roots of and kills grape vines.

picante (also piquant): highly spiced.

pick-up: number of rooms picked up each day; number of new reservations made each day.

pilaf: method of cooking rice usually in flavoured stock.

pint: glass of beer, approximately half litre.

piquant (also picante): highly spiced.

pleasure travel: travel for purpose of leisure.

plenary: general assembly for all persons actively involved in meeting.

plus-plus: the amount representing the taxes and tips (T&T) to be added to a quoted meal or function price.

PMS: Property Management System.

PNR: Passenger Name Record.

pocket (manual only): portion of room rack made up to accept room rack slips and provide permanent record of accommodation and rates.

podium: small platform on which a speaker stands, usually for the purposes of audience visibility.

point of purchase sales materials: signs, posters, tent cards, elevator cards, intended to internally promote facilities and messages to on-premise guests and customers.

point-of-sales terminal (POS): computer term for input equipment immediately accessible to place of sale for on-line input.

point-to-point fare: basic rate between a city pair.

pooling: sharing tips collected by all staff.

port: left-hand side of boat when looking forward.

portability: eligibility of practitioner certified in one jurisdiction to practice in another without undergoing further training or assessment.

porterage: gratuity given to porters or baggage handlers.

portion: specific amount of each food served to the customer.

POS: Point of Sale. (see point of sale terminal).

posada: small hotel in Spanish-speaking countries.

position statement: public relations maneuver where companies proclaim their goals to the general public. (mission/vision statement).

positioning: providing transportation and compensation for guide to arrive at destination for start of tour; or, putting vehicle into position before start of trip; also in marketing, comparing one’s own product/services to those of the compensation.

poster session: display of material, usually scientific, accompanied by authors or researchers.

posture: stance, or how a person holds or carries his/her body.

pot: a cooking container.

pôtage: French for soup.

potwasher: washes pots and dishes in a restaurant.

power: the ability to get others to do things.

PR: public relations.

pre/post tour: pre-arranged activity undertaken before or after scheduled event.

preassign (or blocked rooms): reservations are assigned and specific rooms are blocked before guest arrives.

preregistration: procedure in which hotel completes registration prior to guest’s arrival; used with groups and tours to reduce congestion at front desk, since individual guests do not register; procedure in which hotel completes registration.

presentation tray: small tray used to present cheque and collect payment.

prime mover: on ski-lift, normal motive power source.

print broker: person in charge of managing print arrangements.

priority room: room that needs cleaning by specific time.

private branch exchange (PBX): telephone switchboard.

private labelling:labelling of bottles by producers/shippers for specific establishments.

proceedings: published volume transcribing conference sessions in full.

procurements: goods and services obtained by renting or purchasing.

product: combination of elements both tangible and intangible which comprise an object or service.

product analysis: study of a property’s features and their subsequent conversion into sets of benefits directed at specific market segments.

productivity: amount of goods or services produced in relation to the input of capital and/or labour.

productivity standard: measure that defines the amount of work trained employees are expected to do.

profit centre: self-supporting department of business with own goals, objectives, budget, review and adjustment strategies.

promotion: sales promotion; also an employee’s move to a position of greater authority and higher pay.

proof: beverage with standard amount of alcohol.

proof of citizenship: official documentation verifying country of citizenship, such as a passport or birth certificate.

property (the): refers to hotel, including its personnel and physical facilities.

proposal: written plans for a future project, containing key points such as costs, risks, materials and labour needed.

prosciutto: dry-cured Italian ham.

prospects: potential clients, business partners, employees.

prospectus: information package.

protection area: on ski-lift, buffered area to protect guests from contacting carriers or passengers where carriers are within 12 feet of ground level.

proteins: vital cell building substances in foods.

proximity switch: electro-magnetic device; can be component of safety switch.

PSO: Public Sector Organization.

PST: in Canada, Provincial Sales Tax.

Psychocentric: non-adventuresome person. (midcentricallocentric).

psychographics: characteristics of market represented by personality and lifestyle traits.

pub: short for “public house” term most frequently used in England for a place that serves alcoholic drinks.

public relations (PR): programs designed to create a strong, positive image of a company; activities undertaken with community in order to maintain or improve image or event.

public space: areas of property accessible to public.

publicity: any planned or spontaneous activity that brings organization, name, product or services before public without direct costs; uncompensated mention of product, person, or service.

purchase order: a form issued by buyer to supplier.

purée: paste of fruit or vegetable used in cooking.

purveyor: supplier.

QSC: Quality, Service, Cleanliness.

Quad: room accommodating four people.

qualify: screening procedure for potential business prospects.

quality assurance: user-oriented management system, where emphasis is placed on delivery of consistent reliable service or goods.

quality circles: management style technique in which employees work in small groups to arrive at suggestions or course of action.

Quebec-Windsor corridor: transportation routes, including rail, road and air, traversing from Windsor to Quebec City, providing access to locations on way. Originated with VIA-rail for their high-density/high frequency passenger train services.

queen: extra-long, extra- wide double bed, about 60 inches by 80 inches.

Queen Mary: multi-level rolling cart used for transporting F&B equipment.

quiche: mixture of cream, eggs, cheese, sometimes meats (ham or bacon) and/or vegetables (spinach, onion, broccoli) in pastry shell.

quick service: cafeteria food service; take-out service. (fast food).

quote: to state room rate or other charges, such as fares, or other information regarding accommodation.

RAA: Regional Airlines Association.

rack rate: standard rate established for and quoted from room rack.

rafting: mooring one boat to another boat.

ragu: (also ragourogout):another name for stew.

rainbow country: common name associated with geographic portion of northern Ontario, appearing on map as square whose corners are defined by Sudbury at bottom right, Sault Ste. Marie at bottom left, Lake Nipagon in top left and Timmins in top right.

RAM: in computers, Random Access Memory.

ramekin: small portion cup used to serve condiments.

ramp agent: baggage handler.

range: large cooking stove.

rate and inventory rack card: card for each guest room which remains permanently in the room rack. Indicating type of room, rate structure and any special features.

rate card: listing of prices.

rate cutting: offering discounts to attract clients, especially your competitor’s.

re-check: room needing minimal cleaning. (tidy-up).

rear entry: in restaurants, where suppliers deliver their goods.

rear view projection: images projected onto back of screen.

receiving steward: receives, inventories, inspects, stores food and beverage items in a hotel.

reception: stand-up social function; also area where guests are received in an office or hotel.

réchard: small stove used in dining room to prepare foods table-side.

reciprocal advertising: exchange of products for advertising.

recognition: process wherein foreign-trained worker has credentials assessed by certifying body other than one which initially granted credential.

reconfirmation: verification of intent to use products or services.

recovery strategy: plans devised to win back patronage of lost or dissatisfied customers.

recruit: to seek potential employees.

red rocket: colloquial name given to Toronto street car; can also refer to Toronto transit system in general.

referral: recommendation.

referral group: group of independent businesses who have banded together for purposes of referral.

refreshment breaks: in a conference, or at a workplace, time allotted from work, sometimes with light snacks, sometimes with exercise.

region: zone; also geographic location.

regional carrier: airline whose license allows it only to carry passengers within provincial US region.

registration: process of signing in a guest.

registration card: form completed by an incoming guest including name and address.

regulatory agencies: official bureaus that exercise laws over the bodies they govern.

repeat business: client who returns to make further purchases.

requisition: written request for supplies.

reservation: agreement to hold space or accommodations for specific period.

reservation deposit: partial payment made in advance in order to hold reservation.

reservation rack: manual system displaying list of expected arrivals.

resident manager: in a hotel, administrative position who sometimes remains on premises, or if not on premises, at least maintains a room.

residential hotel: accommodations that provide services for guests who wish to stay for extended periods of time.

resort hotel: hotel located in lovely setting where people go for vacation; accommodations that provide recreational and entertainment facilities.

response mechanism: in advertising, device such as 800-number or reply coupon that makes it easy for consumers to respond.

restaurant: an establishment at a fixed location that serves food to transients.

restaurant consulting: a business that assists in planning for a restaurant.

restaurateur: person who operates restaurant.

restraining bar: safety bar used on some ski-lifts, may include footrest.

retail: sale of single item goods to customer.

retail travel agent: provides public with preplanned travel and/or transportation.

retailers: individuals who sell directly to the public.

return station: terminal at opposite end of ski-lift from drive station.

revalidation sticker: official notice in change in original reservation which is affixed to flight coupon of airline ticket.

revenue centre: outlet that generates income, contrasted with those that provide services.

revenue passenger miles: total number of revenue passengers carried, multiplied by miles they are carried.

rez de chausser: French term describing story at street level. (Erdgescho, ground floor, first floor).

Ride the Rocket: advertising slogan used by TTC to encourage ridership. (rocket; red rocket).

riser: podium (stage, dais).

risk management: efforts to protect assets, earning power and human resources against accidental loss.

risotto: Italian rice dish.

riz: French for rice.

RNA: Registered but Not Assigned.

rocket: see red rocket.

roll-away: mobile, twin-sized bed.
roll-backs: unintended reversal of ski-lift.

rolling stock: cars or units that make up a train.

ROM: in CanadaRoyalOntarioMuseum; also in computers, Read Only Memory, i.e., memory that can not be rewritten.

room attendant: person responsible for maintenance of guest room.

room count: number of occupied rooms for a given period of time.

room inspection report: daily checklist indicating condition of each guest room.

room monitor: person who ensures that meeting is proceeding according to plan.

room rack: front office equipment comprised of series of metal pockets (one for each room) in which rooming slips are placed.

room rack rooming slip: small form sized to fit pocket of room rack, showing name of occupant.

room rate: price charged for specific guest room.

room service: providing meals and drinks in hotel rooms.

room set-up: arrangement of furniture for assemblies in meeting rooms or auditoriums.

room status: code or description showing occupancy and condition of room.

roomette: private accommodation on a train consisting of a small enclosure having a table, toilet facilities and small sofa bed.

rooming: registering and assigning guests to rooms in a hotel.

rooming house: private residence that rents rooms, usually with shared bath and kitchen facilities. (pension).

rooming list: roster of individuals requiring guest room accommodations.

Roquefort: white cheese speckled with mold.

rosé: wine in colour midway between red and white.

rosemary: sweet fresh herb.

rotation system: on ski-lift operations, means of moving and relieving staff without interruption of services.

round trip: returning to origin by same carrier.

roundtable: see breakout session.

routing: sequence of point-to-point destinations.

routing code: in telephone systems of Canada and United States, third sequence of digits dialed by customers to route calls to correct locations in overseas countries. (international access/country codes).

roux: cooked mixture of flour, butter, and or oil.

royalty: fee paid to an enterprise for the use of its trademark in the selling of a product or service.

RPA: Regional Publishers Association.

run of the house rate: flat rate.

rush room: priority room.

RV: Recreational Vehicle.

RWFBH: Roundtable for Women Food Beverage Hospitality.

SABRE: Semi-Automated Business Research Environment.

safe deposit box: located in front office for use as security storage of personal items.

safety gate: on ski-lift, device which, due to passenger’s weight or contact, interrupts stop circuit.

safety needs: concerns for our psychological and emotional and physical well-being.

SAFSR: Society for Advancement of Food Service Research.

sage: strong, bitter herb, used for stuffing dressings.

sake: white, semisweet Japanese alcoholic beverage made from rice.

salamander: top heating oven, used to brown the top of food.

salary: weekly, bi-weekly, monthly or yearly pay for work.

sales blitz: in telemarketing, making as many new contacts as possible in the shortest amount of time.

sales manager: executive in charge of sales and sales staff.

sales mix: mixture of products sold by businesses.

sales promotion: selling enhanced by incentives such as special offers, discounts.

samovar: Russian tea kettle, similar to hot water urn.

sample room: guest room used for display of accommodations, services or merchandise.

SATA: South American Tourism Association.

SATH: Society for Advancement of Travel for Handicapped.

satisfiers: products or services which fulfill the needs of their users.

SATW: Society of American Travel Writers.

saucier: sauté, cook.

sauté: to cook in small amount of hot oil, while turning ingredients.

scallion: sliced Spanish onion often used as garnish for broths or other clear soups.

scallop: type of seafood.

SCANS: Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

scheduled carrier: airline offering regular flights with published departure and arrival times.

scientific meetings: see medical meetings; conference; convention.

scorekeeping: tracking progress of budgets.

seamless transit: one fare travel which permits transfers between non-affiliated transit systems, such as between provincially funded inter-city commuter trains and municipally funded local transit networks.

seasonal resorts: attract tourists at specific times of the year.

seat rotation: on motorcoach tour, process of reassigning seats front to back, so as to encourage people to socialize, and give people fair shares of views from vehicle.

secondary motives: learned motives that include achievement, power motivation, and other specialized motives.

section: seating area.

securitization: process of issuing bonds to finance or refinance loan.

sediment: natural residue from wine making process seen in wine, settling to bottom. (see decant)

segmentation: competitive business strategy based on target audiences.

self-services: restaurant where customers serve themselves from food displayed on shelves.

semi-skilled work: requires limited amount of formal training.

seminar: see clinic.

servers: transport food from kitchen to guest room.

service: intangible aspects of total hospitality product.

service area: part of the restaurant where waitstaff pick up orders.

service bar: where waitstaff give orders for customers; not intended for public.

service brake: brake used to stop and hold ski-lift under normal service.

service charge: predetermined amount of money added to a price; percentage of bill added in some countries for tips for the staff.

service encounter: period of time in which customer directly interacts with either personnel or physical facilities, and other physical and visible elements of hospitality business.

service stop: on ski-lift service brake is applied immediately when service stop command is given (as opposed to stop or emergency stop).

serving stand: stand on which trays and platters from the kitchen can be placed before and after serving food.

set up time: time required to prepare facility for function or event.

SFM: Society for Foodservice Management.

shallot: small, mild onion.

sheave: on ski-lift, pulley or wheels grooved for rope.

sheave assembly: on ski-lift, series of sheaves in frame on tower or in station.

short order: item that can be cooked quickly.

short turn: in public transit system, vehicle that traverses only portion of its designated route.

short-order cook: person specializing in the preparation of food that is cooked quickly.

shot: ounce measure of alcohol.

shoulder season: at each end of high season.

shuttle: transportation, usually free to guests of property, to key locations such as airport or convention centres.

side towel: towel used to serve with.

sight: device used to aim firearm.

sighting: process of determining accuracy of sight on forearm or bow.

signage: visual means of communicating directions.

signing authority: person who has authority to sign documents.

silence pad: plastic pad that covers table to protect surface.

simple mixture: mixture of water and sugar brought to boil and then cooled to make thick syrup used to sweeten.

single rate: charge for a single room.

single room: room designated for one person.

single supplement: additional charge for client who is travelling alone.

SITA:Société International de TélécommunicationsAéronautique.

site inspection: FAM trip.

SITE: Society of Incentive Travel Executives.

situation analysis: comprehensive evaluation of business position in market place; evaluation of a company’s current financial state.

ski bum: one who frequents upscale skiing resorts, as if permanent fixture, in hopes of falling in with any wealthy patrons (beach bum).

ski-lift: conveyance used for transporting skiers to top of hills, by means of totes (T-bars) attached to high tension cable (haul rope), suspended above ground by towers (gantry), looped around two capstan-like devices (bullwheels) at top and bottom of hill. Power source which drives bullwheels is located at bottom location.

ski retention device: prevents ski from sliding away from wearer when binding releases.

skilled work: requires special training, aptitude and experience.

skipper: one who orders and accepts services, and sneaks out to avoid paying. See also stiff, dine-and-dash, theft of services.

sleep out: not-slept-in.

sleeper: room which does not appear on the room rack or computer as being vacant.

SLHOTW: Small Luxury Hotels Of The World.

slip: docking place for boat; also called pier or well.

SMERF: Social, Military, Educational, Recreational and Fraternal.

SMURF: Social, Military, Union, Religious and Fraternity Groups.

sofa bed: sofa which unfolds to become a bed.

soft costs: costs of lawyers, engineers, consultants, professional costs.

soft-ripened cheese: cheese ripened from outside in by mould or bacteria.

solar energy: energy derived from the sun.

solera: system of blending sherries or ports from mixture of several vintages to ensure consistency.

soliciting: selling.

sommelier: expert in wine selection to chef (see wine steward).

SOP: Standard Operating Procedure.

sorbet: frozen fruit mixture, usually between courses to clear palate.

soufflé: baked mixture of whipped egg whites.

sous-chef: next in command to chef.

Southern Ontario: southern-most lands of Ontario, bounded by LakesErie and Ontario in south, Huron and St. Clair in west, Georgian Bay in north, Montreal in east. (see Quebec-Windsor corridor)

spa: any fitness or health related resort.

spa cuisine: emphasizes preparation of low calorie, low fat entrées that feature an abundance of fresh fruits and vegetables and complex carbohydrates.

SPATT: special attention; label assigned to important guests designated for special treatment.

spec sheet: details of a function or product.

special interest tours: pre-arranged itinerary designed to appeal or respond to request by group of people with particular interests.

special needs: needs of persons with disabilities.

special rates: variation from posted rack rate.

speciality advertising: promotions using such handy items as pens, mugs, T-shirts.

special event company/co-ordinator: business which develops, coordinates and stages special events, e.g., rodeos, theme parties, conventions.

spirits: another name for distilled drinks.

splice: method of joining two ends of rope by interweaving them to form continuous loop.

split: half-bottle of wine.

split folio: split billing of charges between an individual’s personal and corporate accounts.

split rate: division of total room rate charge among room’s several guests.

split shift: work pattern divided into two working periods with unusually long period (more than rest or meal time) between.

sponsor: person or organization that contributes financially in exchange for activity or benefit.

sponsoring organization: various sponsors of tourism.

spread rate: assignment of group members or conventioneers using standard rate distribution, although prices may be less than rack rates.

spring box: on ski-lift, device which retracts T-bar or platter into proper holder.

stage: podium (see riser, dais).

staging: structures used by speakers at assemblies; platforms, risers.

stanchions: posts or pillars for confirming or directing crowds.

standard purchase specifications: food standards established by restaurant (also called “specs”).

standby: reduced fare which allows passenger to board after all reservations have been boarded.

staple foods: items such as flour, sugar, spices.

star rating: unreliable ranking (except for some well-known exceptions) of hotels facilities both in United States and abroad.

star reservation: indicates arrival of special guest (see VIP).

starboard: right-hand side of boat when looking forward.

station: number of tables or area served by one waitstaff member.

steam table: large serving table used in buffet or cafeteria food servers that heats water underneath serving trays to keep food item hot.

STEC:Saskatchewan Tourism Education Council.

step-on guide: guide who joins tour to provide interpretation in particular city or site.

steward: in a hotel or restaurant, one who supervises the provision and distribution of food and drink.

stiff: to force one’s debts (such as a restaurant bill) onto another. For example, the waitstaff were angry at the large party who left without paying, and stiffed them for the tab; also describes mixed drink with large quantity of liquor.

stipend: allowance granted.

STO: State Tourist Office.

stop: on ski-lift, after stop command is given service brake is applied to stop and hold lift after lift ramps down (as opposed to service and emergency stops).

stop time: in taxicab, “time off” position on meter.

stopover: planned interruption of journey.

stopping distance: on ski-lift, distance required for lift to stop at full unloaded speed.

storekeeper: responsible for storage and keeping of food supplies.

STP: Satellite Ticket Planner.

strategies: approaches to reaching business or other objectives.

street car: electrified surface rail vehicle for passenger service in urban areas.

strip labelling: addition of producer’s/shipper’s strip label below or above original label designation selection of wine by establishment.

STTE: Society of Travel and Tourism Educators.

studio: bed approximately 36 inches by 75 inches used as sofa during day.

subway: network of underground (for most part) transportation routes, serviced by electrified trains. (see metro;underground)

suggested itinerary: preliminary activities schedule for clients, drafted by tourism professionals.

suggestive selling: to increase amount of guest check by recommending items.

suite(s): combined living space with kitchen facilities or bathroom section with attached parlour; set of rooms in hotel, consisting of kitchen, sitting room, bedroom and/or other rooms, intended for sole use of occupant.

sunset country: in Ontario, lands north of Lake of Woods, bordering on Manitoba.

superstructure: above ground facilities.

supper: late night meal or evening meal when midday service is designated as dinner.

supplier: one who makes available goods to retailers.

supply: availability of goods or services in economy.

support centre: department or function which primarily provides specialized services to both facility and its customers.

suspects: colloquial term for unscreened “leads.”

sustainable development: developing and maintaining resource so that it is not depleted.

sweetness/dryness: residual sugar content of wine.

swing: work shift from 4 pm to midnight; also, on ski-lift, motion of carrier suspended from wire rope, may be lateral or longitudinal.

switch: manual or electrical means of interrupting electrical circuit.

SWOT: in market research/situation analysis, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats.

symbolic image: relationship between one’s self-concept and destination’s image.

symposium: meeting of number of experts in particular field.

székesárdivórós: Hungarian semi-sweet red wine.

T&T included: taxes and tips included.

T/U/V/-shape: arrangement of furniture in meeting halls that resembles one of these letters.

TA: travel agent.

tab: bill in restaurant.

table d’hóte: arrangement in which price of entrée includes complete meal.

table lectern: small slanted reading desk placed on table.

table services: restaurant service in which customers are seated at a table where they are served by waitstaff.

table tents: promotional materials, displayed in small plastic stands or designed to stand alone on table.

tachometer: device for measuring revolutions per minute of shaft.

tactics: means of implementing management or other programs.

tangibles: features of a product or facility which can be expressed by units of size, space time.

tannin: compound found in grape skins, stems and casks; contributes to astringency.

tap: to tap beer keg.

target audience/market: market segments identified as having greatest potential and towards which marketing activities are aimed.

tariffs: published fares and rules of suppliers.

tarragon: strong herb used to flavour many types of food.

tartar sauce: seafood sauce made of mayonnaise and pickle relish.

tartaric acid: essential acid in grapes and wine; contributes to tang, quality and finish.

tavern: old-fashioned term still in use for an establishment that serves drinks.

taverns: establishments that serve some food but specialize in alcoholic beverages.

taxicab: motor vehicle, with driver, for hire, used for carrying customers and goods.

taxicab stand: appointed location where only taxicabs are permitted to park while waiting for trips.

TC: Tourism Canada.

teachable moments: unexpected events that occur during program which may be incorporated for benefit of participants.

tear-down time: knock-down time.

TEC: Tourism Education Council.

telautograph: proprietary piece of communication equipment that transcribes written messages.

teleconference: type of conference or meeting which brings people together through different media.

telemarketing: selling products or services over the telephone.

ten-digit area: telephone service for large urban areas where 10 digits are required for local calls, instead of usual 7. (see WATS).

tension terminal: on ski-lift, station with tensioning system.

terminal: station at top or bottom of ski-lift; origin/destination point of transit system route.

terrine: mixture of pureed or seafood meat and spices baked in form.

test marketing: means of evaluating a new or expanded product by “field testing” with a representative sample.

THAA: Tourist House Association of America.

theft of services: one who orders and accepts service but evades payment, e.g., dine-and-dash; skipper.

theme event: event designed so that food, decorations and entertainment all relate to one central idea, for example special holiday, commemorating person’s birth or marking religious observance. (See caterer, foodie).

theme park: based on particular setting or artistic interpretation and operated with hundreds or thousands of acres of parkland and hundreds of employees.

through passenger: passenger schedules to continue journey on same vehicle.

throw-away: item in land portion of tour rarely used, but included in tour package to qualify passenger for tour-based fare.

thyme: aromatic herb used to flavour chicken.

TIAA: Travel Industry Association of America, also TIA.

TIAC: Tourism Industry Standards Association of Canada.

TIANB: Tourism Industry Association of New Brunswick.

TIANS: Tourism Industry Association of Nova Scotia.

TIAPEI: Tourism Industry Association of Prince Edward Island.

ticket stock: blank airline tickets used to book passage on any airline that is a member of IATA.

tickler (trace) system: procedure for bringing up files or other records at a particular time for specific action.

tidy-up: room needing minimal cleaning (re-check).

tie-down meeting: a formal meeting between buyer and seller where all details are confirmed.

time line: time frame specifying order in which tasks are to be accomplished.

time share (time sharing): various forms of internal ownership where a specific number of participants purchase accommodations and divide the usage for a specified number of weeks per year.

time stamp: clock mechanism that prints date and time when activated.

tip: portion of total bill before taxes (nominally 15%) paid by restaurant patron to waitstaff; or nominal monetary token of appreciation to hotel porters or other service personnel. (see gratuities)

TIPS: Training for Intervention Procedures by Servers.

TISCC: Tourism Industry Standards and Certification Committee.

to-date: designates cumulative amount, sum of all figures in current figures in current period.

TO: Tourism Office, Tourism Organization.

token: small gesture of appreciation; tip; gratuity; also small coin sold by transit systems to riders, valid as fare on all vehicles,; but intended to facilitate entry into subway through specially rigged turnstiles.

tone: variation in colour.

total yearly expenses: record of all costs for year.

tour: pre-arranged travel package which includes transportation to and from one or more destinations.

tour and travel account executive: sales and marketing staff executive who calls on travel agents so as to develop leisure markets.

tour leader/escort/conductor: widely used to describe anyone who is responsible for leading group.

tour operator/packager/broker/wholesaler: creates, promotes and develops tours.

tour-based fares: reduced, round-trip fare under special conditions.

tourism: travel for recreation or promotion and arrangement of such travel.

tourism offices (Tos): organizations in charge of developing and implicating tourism programs for individual areas, also referred to as destination market organizations.

tourists: people who travel 100 miles or more and who stay at least one night away from home.

tourist class: non-US designation for limited service hotels, usually lacking private bath.

tourist resorts: establishments attracting and accommodating tourists.

tournedos: portion of meat or seafood tenderloin between 2-4 oz.

tower: on ski-lift, support structure for haul rope between terminals (also called gantry)

tower head: on ski-lift, cross-member of tower that supports sheave assemblies.

tower section: portion of upscale property reserved for VIPs, usually on the top floors.

trade advertising contract: exchange of hotel accommodations for advertising.

trade publications: special interest magazines, newsletters, journals, directed to specific professions.

trade show: exhibition by manufacturers to introduce new products or services to other manufacturers.

trademark: name given to product or business.

traffic sheet: departmental control form used by telephone department.

trail report: report on skiing conditions.

training certificates: training certificates provide proof that training regime was undertaken, however, there is no form of assessment.

transcript ruler: headings of transcript sheet attached to straight edge and used as column guide at bottom of long transcript sheet.

transfer: accounting technique used to move figure from one form to another, usually between folios; also receipt for paid fare issued to users of public transit systems allowing continuous travel between intersecting routes; also porterage.

transfer folio: special unnumbered folio used to carry guest’s account beyond first week.

transfer from: debit portion of transfer between accounts and ledgers.

transfer to: credit portion of transfer between accounts.

transient: short-term guest; any person who passes through, but does not live in a specific location.

transient base: number of hotel rooms left available specifically for short-term/notice guests such as walk-ins or transients.

transient hotel: accommodations that provide basic amenities only.

transit advertising: advertisement found in public transit.

transposition: transcription error caused by reordering sequence of digits, as when 389 is written 398. Rule of thumb is that difference is always divisible by 9.

travel agent (TA): entrepreneur who books space and facilities for clients in hotels and public carriers, and receives commission, usually 10 per cent.

travel generator: see demand generator.

travel incentive: incentive travel operator.

travel industry: components of the hospitality field to do with transportation.

travel tourism deficit: low revenues in the industry caused by lack of activity.

tray service: fee charged to American plan guests for room service.

tree stand: device which attaches to tree and allows hunter to position.

trip: journey from origin to destination.

trip sheet: in taxicab, written record of details on each trip; e.g. pick-up location, destination, fare charged, meter reading.

triple room: room for three people.

trolley: term used for wagon of guerdion used for dining room service; also word for streetcar.

trophy: animal with distinctive features.

truffles: fungus, similar to mushrooms growing underground.

TTC:Toronto Transit Commission.

TTRA: Travel and Tourism Research Association.

tube: American/Canadian slang for television; also British slang for subway.

tucks: on ski-lift, places where opposing strands are crossed or laid together in splice.

tulip: style of glass used for serving champagne.

tumbler: term used for flat bottomed large glass.

tuning out: feigning attentive listening to another, while thinking about other things; ignoring someone or something completely.

turn away: to refuse walk-in business because rooms are unavailable; guest so refused; guest who can not be accommodated due to full occupancy; usually referred to another hotel.

turn-down-service: in hotels with concierge floors, an extra service where the bed clothes are turned down, room freshened, snacks served and sometimes a “night cap” furnished upon request.

turn-downs: evening service rendered by housekeeping department, which replaces soiled bathroom linen and prepares bed for use.

turn-in deposit: sum deposit with general cashier at close of each shift.

turn-key: facility so complete that it is ready with turn of key.

turnaround: rapid arranging or rearranging of facility for next customer.

turnover: number of people served in one meal period divided by the number of available seats; also, number of times a new employee must be hired to do the same job.

turnover rate: calculated by dividing number of workers replaced in given time period by average number of employees needed to run business.

turnstile: gate regulating entry to controlled access areas; consisting of metal arm barring access, unless activated by pass mechanism, such as coin, key or access card; similar gate not requiring activated access, that merely counts those passing through for statistics (see crowd control).

TWA: Trans World Airlines

twin: bed approximately 39 inches by 75 inches to sleep one person, room with two such beds.

twin: room for two people with two separate beds.

twin double: two double beds, room with two such beds capable of accommodating four persons.

twins: two twin beds.

twist: piece of lemon rind used to garnish and flavour drinks.

U-bahn: German for subway.

UBOA: United Bus Owners of America.

UFTAA: Universal Federation of Travel Agents Associations.

U/S: unserviceable.

underdeparted: number of rooms available is less than forecasted.

underground: British word for what Canadians call subway.

underliner: paper or linen napkin, placed between serving plate and bowl or dinner plate.

understay (or unexpected check-out): guest who checks out before expiration of anticipated stay.

uniform: company regulation clothing available in one style only worn as regular attire for work.

union shop: company whose employees are unionized.

unknown guest (to be checked): unidentified guest in a room that appears vacant in room rack.

unripened cheese:unaged cheese used fresh.

unskilled work: requires little or no aptitude.

up sell: convince arriving guest to take higher priced room than was planned or reserved (see downgrade, upgrade).

upgrade: move reservation or registered guest to better accommodation or class of service.

upscale: facility or services catering to wealth.

user friendly: computer design, application, and implementation that minimizes user’s fears, encouraging purchase and use of equipment.

USP: Unique Selling Proposition; also Unique Servicing Proposition.

USTC: United States Tourist Council.

USTOA: United States Tour Operators Association.

USTTA: United States Travel and Tourism Administration.

vacancy: occupancy of less than full house so rooms are available for sale; room available for sale.

vacant: check out room; also room clean and available for next guest.

value season: positive term for what was traditionally called off-season. (also see shoulder season).

variable costs: expenses which do change with amount of volume, business.

variety: grape type.

VAT: Value Added Tax.

VDQS:VinsDélimités de QualitéSupérieure.

veined cheese: cheese inoculated with mould.

veloute: type of cream soup or sauce thickened with eggs and cream (see vichyssoise).

vendor: one who sells.

vermicelli: thin noodle often used in soups.

vertical integration: take-over of small local companies by larger more powerful company, offering same types of services. (See horizontal integration)

VFR: Visiting Friends and Relatives.

VFW: Veterans of Foreign Wars.

VIA (also known as VIA-rail): National Passenger Railroad Service of Canada that operates on subsidies all major passenger train service. (see Amtrak).

vichyssoise: cold, thick, creamy soup made from leeks and potatoes. (seeveloute)

video conference: teleconference allowing parties distant from one another to see each other’s visual presentation and answer questions through demonstration.

vinaigrette: cold dressing made from vinegar, oil and herbs.

vinification: process of making wine from grapes.

vintage: harvest or year that produced grapes for a particular wine.

VIP: very important person; reservation or guest who warrants special attention and handling.

virgin: drink made without alcohol.

visibility: belief that good supervision should be seen by employees; for example waling the house.

vision statement: declaration by company stating what it stands for and what its goals are for the future.

vitamins: the substances, necessary for life, that regulate the functioning of nerves and glands.

viticulture: science and art of growing grapes.

vocational qualifications: vocational qualifications do not provide exclusive right to practice or use of reserved title.

voids: cancelled transaction on point-of-sale system.

voucher: form used by operating departments to notify front desk of charges incurred by particular guest.

wage: hourly rate of pay for work.

wait list: listing of tentative reservations for guests or customers who can not be handled at a requested time, but who can be accommodated should space or facilities become available.

waitstaff: workers who serve food in restaurants.

wake-up calls: service provided by hotels for clients who wish to be awakened by a telephone call at their requested time.

walk (guest): to turn away guests holding confirmed reservations due to lack of available rooms.

walk-in: guest without reservation who requests and receives accommodations; one who registers without reservation or any other advance notification.

walk-in refrigerator: refrigerator large enough to walk into.

walk-on: passenger without valid reservation.

walk-out: see dine-and-dash.

walk-through: thorough examination of property by hotel executive, franchise inspector, prospective buyer, etc.

walking the house: periodic property inspection by management, or supervision; good for morale.

WATA: World Association of Travel Agents.

watercress: crisp green spicy leaves used to garnish foods.

WATS (wide area telephone service): long-distance telephone lines provided at special rates even wholesaled to large users, multiple lines may be purchased at multiple charges, separate charges are levied for incoming and outgoing WATS lines (ten-digit area).

well-brand: lesser-quality product used to prepare drink orders at bar.

WES:Washington Ethical Society.

WFTGLA: World Federation of Tourist Guide Lecturers Association.

whistle stop: brief stop at a location, by train or bus.

wholesale: sale of goods in large quantities at a discount.

wholesale show: trade show at which products and services are sold to industry members; e.g., travel agents, tour operators.

wholesaler: one who sells goods wholesale; also tour operator.

wine: beverage fermented from grapes usually with an alcoholic content of about twelve to fourteen percent.

wine capsule: plastic or metal covering top of wine bottle and cork.

wine cooler: plastic or metal container used to chill wine bottles at table; or type of alcoholic beverage.

wine host: guest who orders wine.

wine list: menu of the wines served by a restaurant.

wine steward: employee in a luxury restaurant who takes wine orders, describes the wines and often serves them (sommelier).

word of mouth: referral.

work and play groups: colloquial term for organizations whose meetings are a mix of professional and social activities.

working the room: mixing with people at convention or other function for the purpose of securing leads and information.

workshop: see clinic.

wort: in beer-making, remaining liquid after mash is strained and filtered.

WTA: World Tourist Association. Established in 1975 to promote international tourism.

WTIS: Wheel-Trans Information Service.

WTO: World Tourism Organization.

WTTC: World Travel & Tourism Council.

yield: amount of cooked food obtained from raw food.

yield management: practice of analyzing past reservation patterns, room rates, cancellations, and non-occupancy rates.

youth program: program for persons who accompany meeting attendee and who don’t necessarily take part in meeting.

YTEC:Yukon Tourism Education Council.

Z-98 code: Canadian Standards Association (CSA) code incorporating rules and regulations for design and operation of ski-lifts.

zero-based budgeting: system of “task basis” financial management based on projected revenues and expenditures for a specified future time period.

zero-out: to balance account as guest checks out and makes settlement.

zinfandel: sweet wine similar to rose.

zone: designated tourism marketing area.