HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY
As taught by
Prof. Tim Richardson
Detailed Course Outline
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
|During this part of the
course, we will cover the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
There are several reasons
why we will look at these Seven Wonders - primarily, these seven architectural
constructions are the best examples of humans demonstrating an attempt
to push the technology of the time to its limits - and each of these Seven
Wonders contains examples of technology which we have used and refined
in our modern times.
Our resources for covering
this material will be
a video from the Discovery Channel
a website from University of
South Florida; Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering
.on the web page http://ce.eng.usf.edu/pharos/wonders/
each one of these Seven Wonders is described in detail.
Gardens of Babylon
|The Statue of Zeus at Olympia
||Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
||The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
||The Colossus of Rhodes
||The Lighthouse at Alexandria
|"Although most people know
that a list exists of the Seven World Wonders, only few can name them.
The list of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World was originally compiled
around the second century BC. The first reference to the idea is found
of Herodotus as long ago as the 5th century BC. Decades later, Greek historians
wrote about the greatest monuments at the time....The final list of the
Seven Wonders was compiled during the Middle
Ages. The list comprised the seven most impressive monuments of the
Ancient World, some of which barely
survived to the Middle Ages."
if you click on the map
above, you may see the web page hosted by USF which identifies
the location of each of
the Seven Wonders
Still today the largest stone
structure in the world.
Built 2500 B.C.
2 million blocks of stone
23 years to build using
shifts of 20,000 workers
perfect square, amazing
competing theories of construction
one long ramp
no use of iron
150 years ago, still the
tallest structure on earth
another 2,000 years passed
before any of the other 7 Wonders created.
||The Hanging Gardens
of Babylon 600 B.C.
built without stone - used
located in present day Iraq
commissioned by King Nebuchadnezzar
II (604-562 BC)
- difficult to understand
how they would have made an irrigation system
- controversy about how
extensive the really were
||The Statue of
Zeus at Olympia
The height of the statue
was about 40' tall or equal to a modern 4 story building.
Pheidias began working on
the statue around 440 BC.
The temple within which
the statue was housed was built around 450 BC.
they erected a wooden frame
on which sheets of metal and ivory were placed to provide the outer covering
developed a special method
to soften ivory to allow it to be clad on the frame
statue transported to a
palace in Constantinople.
destroyed by fire
in AD 462. when the statue was about 800 years old
idea of a sitting statue
has carried over today, eg. Pres. Lincoln Memorial
||Temple of Artemis
built around 550 BC.
said to be the largest marble
stone temple ever constructed. 180'x360'
Biggest problem was getting
the 40 ton blocks of stone from 7 miles away.
Had 127 columns, each 60
Developed a unique method
of rolling stones encased in a round frame.
It was twice the size of
the Parthenon 18
decorated with bronze statues
sculpted by the most skilled artists of their time
The temple served as both
a marketplace and a religious institution.
took 50 years to build,
even with the aid of iron tools
356 B.C. burned by an arsonist
completed around 350 B.C.
commissioned by King Maussollos
and his sister, who he took as a bride
was twice the height of
any known building in the world at the time.
Considered a world wonder
due to the difficulty in hoisting huge statues up to the top of the roof
with innovative cranes.
idea of statues on top of
modern buildings comes from this concept
the building stood for 16
centuries until it fell during an earthquake
by the 1500's, most of the
stone stolen away to make other buildings
this elaborate tomb was
so impressive, it gave rise to our modern word Mausoleum
construction took 12 years
and was finished in 282 B.C.
stood about 110 feet high
made of a bronze outer shell
over a frame of iron and stone
located in the harbor of
the Mediterranean island of Rhodes in Greece.
There is disagreement about
whether the statue had legs together, or legs spanning the harbour - the
difference is significant for how it would have been designed
earthquake damaged it in
226 B.C. and nobody would repair it
Some say it inspired French
sculptor Auguste Bartholdi who made The Statue of Liberty.
On the ancient island of
Pharos, which is now part of Alexandria in Egypt.
It was begun by Ptolemy
around 290 BC,
total height of 384 ft,
equivalent to a 40-story modern building.
The light, reflected off
bronze mirrors, was said to have been seen 50 miles away
earthquakes in A.D. 956
effected it a bit, but it still stood.
earthquakes in 1303 and
in 1323 damaged it severely
in the 14th Century, many
stones were taken and used to build a fort
"Of the six vanished Wonders,
the Lighthouse of Alexandria was the last to disappear. Therefore we have
adequately accurate knowledge of its location and appearance." USF
This page could not have
been built without the original hard work of the people in the
Dept. of Civil and Environmental
Engineering at the University of South Florida,
Alaa K. Ashmawy
The seven miniature pics,
and the map, on this page come from the USF page.